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"The Last Days of Tenochtitlan, Conquest of Mexico by Cortez", a 19th-century painting by William de Leftwich Dodge.

Genes of 92 prehistoric Native Americans give further evidence of a terrible holocaust

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The genocide of Native Americans is considered by many to be the worst of any in history—outstripping the later Jewish and Roma Holocaust by as much as an order of magnitude. Now a study of the maternal genes of skeletal and mummified remains of 92 North and South Americans dating from 8,600 to 500 years ago shows that all those lineages were wiped out. No living person descended from any the individuals tested is known to be living today.

It is unknown how many people lived in the Americas when Columbus and the other conquistadors arrived. Estimates range from 1 million to 100 million. One middling estimate puts the North American number alone at about 12 million people, who were reduced to 237,000 by 1900.

Of the 84 genetic lineages among the 92 North and South American remains, not one lineage survived contact with Europeans, a new study says.

“When Europeans arrived, some of those populations were wiped out completely,” Bastien Llamas, an author of the study who is a geneticist with the University of Adelaide, told Science .

DeSoto claiming the Mississippi, as depicted in the United States Capitol rotunda

DeSoto claiming the Mississippi, as depicted in the United States Capitol rotunda ( public domain )

Mitochondrial DNA provides only part of the picture, the article states—the line of mother to child. You don’t see if male genes survived, or even what happened with women who didn’t have children. (Though if they didn’t have children obviously their genes would not survive in present-day people.)

The Science article tells how the study was conducted. The researchers took DNA from the 92 skeletons and mummies from western North and South America, from Mexico to Chile. The team sequenced the mitochondrial genome of each person’s remains. Mitochondrial genes descend from mother to child, “so the sequences open a window onto the matrilineal heritage of indigenous Americans extending all the way back to their roots in Siberia,” the article states.

Natives reject the idea that all of their ancestors arrived from Siberia, so this study has an element of controversy. The article states:

By tallying up the random mutations that accumulate in populations that have been separated, geneticists can count backwards and figure out when two groups last had a common ancestor. When the researchers applied that technique to the 92 mummies and skeletons, they found that their ancestors had last been in contact with Siberian populations about 23,000 years ago. After that, a group with about 2000 child-bearing females (perhaps about 10,000 people total) spent 6000 years or so genetically cut off from other groups of humans. That supports the idea that the ancestors of the earliest Americans spent a few millennia stranded in Beringia, the now submerged landmass that once stretched from Siberia to Alaska, before the ice sheets started to melt and open up passages to the New World.

Map showing the location of Bering Land Bridge National Preserve

Map showing the location of Bering Land Bridge National Preserve ( public domain )

About 16,000 years ago there was a population boom. Suddenly, lineages began branching off, a time when, the researchers believe, people began to move from Beringia, which is now submerged, into the Americas. There, with new land and untapped resources, the population spread rapidly to every corner of the New World.

Alan Cooper, an evolutionary biologist who was a lead author of the study, said the only possible route was along the Pacific coast because the ice sheets were so thick and there was no way through farther inland.

“Everybody settled down,” the article states. “Within a few thousand years, many of the ancient lineages had already diverged from one another, meaning that people from one group were not having babies with people from another (or at least, their mothers weren’t moving around, since we’re talking about mitochondrial DNA). The team found 84 separate genetic lineages represented by the 92 samples , they report today in Science Advances.”

So how did all those unfortunate people die? This is another area of controversy among natives of North and South America and the Caribbean. While some say most natives were accidentally wiped out by disease, t he fact is, beginning with Columbus in the Caribbean, Cortez in Mexico and Pizarro in Peru, Europeans killed and enslaved natives. And it was no different in later years. Some natives died from being worked to death. Others starved. History books are filled with one attack on and slaughter of innocent native villagers after another. And yes, many died from disease.

16th century Aztec drawing of smallpox victims

16th century Aztec drawing of smallpox victims ( public domain )

This writer has often thought that if the Europeans knew they were infecting and killing natives with disease, the only decent thing they could have done would have been to quarantine themselves from these continents. But if you look at American Founding Fathers’ statements and texts , they had a deliberate policy to “remove” Indians, steal their territory and kill them off.

The first U.S. president, George Washington, stated in 1779:

The immediate objectives are the total destruction and devastation of their settlements and the capture of as many prisoners of every age and sex as possible. It will be essential to ruin their crops in the ground and prevent their planting more.

Featured image: "The Last Days of Tenochtitlan, Conquest of Mexico by Cortez", a 19th-century painting by William de Leftwich Dodge. ( public domain )

By Mark Miller

Comments

Sub-Saharan Africa is where sex with a virgin is seen as a cure for AIDS. There could be others, but that is the only one I have read about.

Giving measles infected blankets to American Indians was never US government policy and is more of the lies that permeate American education. Measles is the lie, not small pox.
The Tuskegee experiments is something that did occur and it was criminal.

There was no such plane crash killing 94 AIDS experts. The rest of your lies are even more ridiculous than the ones I mentioned.

If you wish to continue this discussion provide proof for the specifics you cited. Don't bother with the infection of the Indians because it did not happen.

In regards to your last paragraph, it sounds 'made-up'. What is "the non-white world" specifically? If these parts of the world are "non-white" as you claim, then how did they get AIDS? In these regions with the highest incident of these diseases there is always a link or clue that the disease was purposely put there by some agency connected with the 'white-world'. Whether it's smallpox infected blankets given to Native Americans during winter, or if it's injecting African-Americans with syphilis (Tuskegee Experiment) or using other vector agents like ticks (Lyme disease, Plum Island facility off the coast of New England where biological agents are cultivated and New England has a high incidence of Lyme disease, no coincidence) and mosquitoes to carry Zika and Nile virus agents. Same old tactics, same modus operandi, same old culprit. Same thing with AIDS. Is it a coincidence that the airliner that went down in East Asia a few years ago under mysterious circumstances with very little investigation was carrying 94 of the world's leading AIDS researchers? That was a 'hit', because they don't want their ace card in the biological agents game compromised by a widely available antidote.
"The truth is specific, lies are vague".
The only specific thing in your statement was some 'lie' about the youngest virgin in these vague "non-white areas". Because you know that if you named any areas, all someone had to do was fact-check and find your statements erroneous (fabricated) and catch you in a bold-faced lie!

Glen,
There is nothing but ignorant facts in your comments. Not only are you ignorant, you are arrogant as well, because you deny you own complicity. You should be banned from this site..

Aleks Mici,
Hypocrites with and Overabundance of Ignorance,

Is that redundant?

I fail to see a need to seek excuses because I never attacked anyone.

There is no ignorance on my part because there is nothing but facts in my comment, which is more than I can say for the comment I addressed.

I see not any reason to call you an hypocrite without shame in a perfect ignorance status.
Please ask excuses to that lady you attacked !

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