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"The Last Days of Tenochtitlan, Conquest of Mexico by Cortez", a 19th-century painting by William de Leftwich Dodge.

Genes of 92 prehistoric Native Americans give further evidence of a terrible holocaust

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The genocide of Native Americans is considered by many to be the worst of any in history—outstripping the later Jewish and Roma Holocaust by as much as an order of magnitude. Now a study of the maternal genes of skeletal and mummified remains of 92 North and South Americans dating from 8,600 to 500 years ago shows that all those lineages were wiped out. No living person descended from any the individuals tested is known to be living today.

It is unknown how many people lived in the Americas when Columbus and the other conquistadors arrived. Estimates range from 1 million to 100 million. One middling estimate puts the North American number alone at about 12 million people, who were reduced to 237,000 by 1900.

Of the 84 genetic lineages among the 92 North and South American remains, not one lineage survived contact with Europeans, a new study says.

“When Europeans arrived, some of those populations were wiped out completely,” Bastien Llamas, an author of the study who is a geneticist with the University of Adelaide, told Science .

DeSoto claiming the Mississippi, as depicted in the United States Capitol rotunda

DeSoto claiming the Mississippi, as depicted in the United States Capitol rotunda ( public domain )

Mitochondrial DNA provides only part of the picture, the article states—the line of mother to child. You don’t see if male genes survived, or even what happened with women who didn’t have children. (Though if they didn’t have children obviously their genes would not survive in present-day people.)

The Science article tells how the study was conducted. The researchers took DNA from the 92 skeletons and mummies from western North and South America, from Mexico to Chile. The team sequenced the mitochondrial genome of each person’s remains. Mitochondrial genes descend from mother to child, “so the sequences open a window onto the matrilineal heritage of indigenous Americans extending all the way back to their roots in Siberia,” the article states.

Natives reject the idea that all of their ancestors arrived from Siberia, so this study has an element of controversy. The article states:

By tallying up the random mutations that accumulate in populations that have been separated, geneticists can count backwards and figure out when two groups last had a common ancestor. When the researchers applied that technique to the 92 mummies and skeletons, they found that their ancestors had last been in contact with Siberian populations about 23,000 years ago. After that, a group with about 2000 child-bearing females (perhaps about 10,000 people total) spent 6000 years or so genetically cut off from other groups of humans. That supports the idea that the ancestors of the earliest Americans spent a few millennia stranded in Beringia, the now submerged landmass that once stretched from Siberia to Alaska, before the ice sheets started to melt and open up passages to the New World.

Map showing the location of Bering Land Bridge National Preserve

Map showing the location of Bering Land Bridge National Preserve ( public domain )

About 16,000 years ago there was a population boom. Suddenly, lineages began branching off, a time when, the researchers believe, people began to move from Beringia, which is now submerged, into the Americas. There, with new land and untapped resources, the population spread rapidly to every corner of the New World.

Alan Cooper, an evolutionary biologist who was a lead author of the study, said the only possible route was along the Pacific coast because the ice sheets were so thick and there was no way through farther inland.

“Everybody settled down,” the article states. “Within a few thousand years, many of the ancient lineages had already diverged from one another, meaning that people from one group were not having babies with people from another (or at least, their mothers weren’t moving around, since we’re talking about mitochondrial DNA). The team found 84 separate genetic lineages represented by the 92 samples , they report today in Science Advances.”

So how did all those unfortunate people die? This is another area of controversy among natives of North and South America and the Caribbean. While some say most natives were accidentally wiped out by disease, t he fact is, beginning with Columbus in the Caribbean, Cortez in Mexico and Pizarro in Peru, Europeans killed and enslaved natives. And it was no different in later years. Some natives died from being worked to death. Others starved. History books are filled with one attack on and slaughter of innocent native villagers after another. And yes, many died from disease.

16th century Aztec drawing of smallpox victims

16th century Aztec drawing of smallpox victims ( public domain )

This writer has often thought that if the Europeans knew they were infecting and killing natives with disease, the only decent thing they could have done would have been to quarantine themselves from these continents. But if you look at American Founding Fathers’ statements and texts , they had a deliberate policy to “remove” Indians, steal their territory and kill them off.

The first U.S. president, George Washington, stated in 1779:

The immediate objectives are the total destruction and devastation of their settlements and the capture of as many prisoners of every age and sex as possible. It will be essential to ruin their crops in the ground and prevent their planting more.

Featured image: "The Last Days of Tenochtitlan, Conquest of Mexico by Cortez", a 19th-century painting by William de Leftwich Dodge. ( public domain )

By Mark Miller

Comments

Errosion of the Great Canyon hasn't appeared at other big /huge rivers as Obi, Lena, Nile, Chinese rivers , Indian rivers and European rivers .
How could be explained !??

When you look at a map, it seems at first sight that the Colorado River has crossed a flat plateau, then entered a region of high ground, then out again onto the same lower plateau the other side. How can that be?

The answer we're told is that it was all plain to start with some 6-10 million years ago, with the Colorado wending its way across. There was then geological uplift, raising a block of plateau more than a mile high. But as the plateau rose, the river was able to stay level with the original plain by cutting down as fast as the land rose, creating the Grand Canyon through ability to "keep up", correction, "keep down".

So yes, your term "erosion" is correct, but maybe fails to convey the extraordinary manner in which a river seems able to cross high ground via its own designer deep gorge.

There is also the concept of Electrical phenomena, not to be dismissed with ‘pooh pooh’ – if you study the effect of gigantic electrical discharges on earth’s surface you will see exactly the picture of the Grand Canyon – the multiple channeling with deep cutting into the surface with no logical  water source from which to get a powerful stream to erode those channels fits better with Electrical discharge than water erosion – look at the formations on Mars too – exacftly the same picture and not a drop of fluid in sight to make those channels ! I think we need to try and take all ideas into account instead of getting into supposed ‘professional expertise’ when so much is really unknown. See Electric  Universe. concepts & http://www.thunderbolts.info/ for lots of very exciting ideas !!!

"But giant floods fit the picture much better. Giant floods explain how marine fossils appear on top of mountains, while ice sheets can’t explain it.".

Nope, not giant floods, nor ice sheets. The mainstream explanation is plate tectonics, continental drift, upthrust and mountain building.

This was taken almost at random off the web:

"During the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic eras (65 million to 570 million years ago) the area that is now the Himalaya occupied the floor of the ancient Tethys Sea on the northern part of the Indian Plate of the Earth’s crust. The mountains were formed by the action of plate tectonics as the Indian Plate, moving north, slowly began to press against the stationary Asian land mass. As a result, the already shallow seabed rapidly folded and was raised into longitudinal ridges and valleys. The principal uplift occurred during the middle or late Tertiary period (12 million to 65 million years ago).

Although the phase of major upheaval of the Himalayas has passed, the Himalayas are still rising, albeit at a much slower rate. The Indian plate is continuously moving north at the rate of about 2 cms every year. Because of this reason the Himalayas are rising at the rate of about 5 millimeter per year. This means that the Himalayas are still geologically active and structurally unstable. For this reason, earthquakes are a frequent occurrence in the entire Himalayan region."

This statement makes me question much of the study:

“Alan Cooper, an evolutionary biologist who was a lead author of the study, said the only possible route was along the Pacific coast because the ice sheets were so thick and there was no way through farther inland.”

Mr. Cooper may have expertise in genetics, but his assertion of an ice barrier doesn’t hold up.  Few people realize the entire idea of an “ice age” comes out of imagination and conjecture, not actual science or observation.

In the 19th century, researchers tried to explain how certain formations occurred and how certain thiings, like erratic boulders, appeared in different places.  

Because at the time the concept of slow, steady evolution had gripped all of academia, they needed a slow process for carrying all this stuff and making these formations.

But giant floods fit the picture much better.  Giant floods explain how marine fossils appear on top of mountains, while ice sheets can’t explain it.

Historical genetics separated from other sciences cannot work.  Modern geneticists have made the same errors, I believe, as scientists in the past made about such claims regarding fingerprints and other forensic data.  To this day you will hear people say that everyone has a unique fingerprint, although we have no way of testing this assumption and we know for a fact some people have fingerprints so similar that even FBI experts can’t tell them apart.

Tom Carberry

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