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A photo showing some stelae found with Arabic inscriptions.

Archaeologists Discover that Earliest Known Arabic Writing Was Penned by a Christian

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The oldest known Arabic writing found in Saudi Arabia, from ca. 470 AD belong to a Christian context and predates the advent of Islam with 150 years.

In December 2015, researchers from a French-Saudi expedition studying rock inscriptions in southern Saudi Arabia published a 100-page-long report in France’s Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres that reported that the oldest Arabic text, carved on a large rectangular stone that was found in Saudi Arabia, is simply of a name, “Thawban (son of) Malik,” decorated with a Christian cross. The same cross systematically appears on the other similar stelae dating more or less to the same period.

The discovery is sensational since it shows that the origins of the Arabic alphabet used to write the Koran belongs to a Christian context. This pre-Islamic alphabet is also called Nabatean Arabic, because it evolved from the script used by the Nabateans, the once-powerful nation that built Petra and dominated the trade routes in the southern Levant and northern Arabia before being annexed by the Romans in the early 2nd century.

Example of Nabatean script to the god Qasiu. Basalt, 1st century AD. Found in Sia in the Hauran, Southern Syria.

Example of Nabatean script to the god Qasiu. Basalt, 1st century AD. Found in Sia in the Hauran, Southern Syria. ( Public Domain )

The ancient text is a legacy of a once flourishing Christian community in the area also linked to the rise of an ancient Jewish kingdom that ruled over much of what is today Yemen and Saudi Arabia

Christians in the Desert

The Muslim tradition preserved in the book of Koran portrays the pre-Islamic region as chaotic and filled with unrest that Mohammed manages to unify with the help of the powerful message of Islam

However, the Islamic text makes no mention of the numerous Christian and Jewish communities across the Saudi peninsula that flourished during the days of Mohammed.

Recent studies of works by ancient Christians and Muslim records have re-shaped our image of the societies that existed in the region and shed new light on the complex history of the region before the advent of Islam. One of the important kingdoms in Arabia at the time was the Jewish kingdom of Himyar.

A bronze statue of Dhamar Ali Yahbur II, a Himyarite King who probably reigned in late 3rd or early 4th century AD. Displayed in Sana'a National Museum.

A bronze statue of Dhamar Ali Yahbur II, a Himyarite King who probably reigned in late 3rd or early 4th century AD. Displayed in Sana'a National Museum. ( CC BY 2.0 )

The kingdom was founded in the 2nd century AD, and around 380 AD the elites of the kingdom of Himyar converted to some form of Judaism. By the 4th century,

Himyar had become an important player in the struggle for regional power. The Kingdom of Himyar’s headquarters was situated in what is today Yemen, from where its expansionist rulers led a series of campaigns conquering into its neighboring states, including the legendary biblical kingdom of Sheba.

Royal inscriptions found in the Saudi capital of Riyadhand and Bir Hima, north of Yemen, attest how the Himyarite kingdom during the 5th century expanded its influence into central Arabia, the Persian Gulf area, and into the region of Mecca and Medina, known as Hijaz.

Pre-Islamic rock art of Arabia at Bir Hima, carved into the eastern foothills of the Asir Mountains of Saudi Arabia.

Pre-Islamic rock art of Arabia at Bir Hima, carved into the eastern foothills of the Asir Mountains of Saudi Arabia. ( CC BY 2.0 )

According to ancient Christian sources, the Christians of the nearby city of Najran suffered a wave of persecution by the Himyarites in 470. The name of Thawban son of Malik appears on eight inscriptions, along with the names of other Christians. The French experts believe these inscriptions are a form of commemoration of Thawban and his fellow Christians that were martyred as they refused to convert to Judaism.

The researchers believe that the Christians choice of the early Arabic script to memorialize their comrades was an act of resistance that stood in sharp contrast to the inscriptions left by Himyarite rulers in their native Sabaean. To adopt a new writing system was a way of manifesting a separation from Himyar, and at the same time, a means to approach the rest of the Arabs to unify against their common enemy.

A portion of a war scene from the Himyarite era.

A portion of a war scene from the Himyarite era. ( CC BY SA 3.0 )

The growing resistance and outside pressure eventually brought down Himyar. In the years around 500, it fell to Christian invaders from the Ethiopian kingdom of Aksum. For the next century, Himyar was a Christian kingdom that continued to exert control over Arabia. During the latter half of the 6th century, one of its rulers, Abraha, marched through Bir Hima, conquering, Yathrib, the desert oasis that 70 years later would become known as Medina – The City of the Prophet.

Featured Image: A photo showing some stelae found with Arabic inscriptions. Source: Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities (SCTA)

By Sam Bostrom

Comments

Instead of Trumping or accusations of belonging to terrorism , can anybody with a no-trump scientific mind discuss the two points that I mentioned in this article:
1- Christianity was present at the periphery of Arabia in Shaam, and Yemen. Islamic history and Quran never ignored or denied such facts. It is no point to claim that an archaeological discovery is a proof for such presence as if Arabs and Muslims were hiding such facts !!!!!! Zoroastrianism was present in Eastern Arabia. The central Arabia (Most of Saudi Arabia) were idolators , yet they were trading with the Christians in Shaam northwards and Yemen Southwards ! So, this article's claim that this proves the presence of Christianity in Arabia is a false claim!
2- The claim that Arabic writing was just 100 years before the birth of Muhammad is a false claim. Arabs used to write the poetry and the gems of Arabic poetry were written in gold and pinned to the walls of the holiest place in Arabia, Kaaba !!!!! Arabic writing predates the date mentioned in this article and none of the writers of the Mo-alaquat was Christian !!!!!
3- Advent, revelation or even "invent" is not the point as the writer of this article (by the way, where is he and why he does not answer my criticism and why did he change and twisted the data in the previous "original" article"?) (http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-general/oldest-arabic-inscription-pr...) is not a Muslim . But he could be more respectful !
4- Most important ! As a man of science and a no-Trump, I searched about the sources of this article and why the author added some faulty information to the original one , here are the findings :
a- There is no mention of an article mentioning such a discovery in Saudi Arabia in the site of the french academy of inscriptions and ancient languages when I put (Arabie Saoudite - "Saudi Arabia in French " , I'm French literate by the way and nobody can fool me about a French article) (http://www.aibl.fr/spip.php?page=recherche&lang=en&recherche=Ara...) ..... Got no results dating to 2014, the date of the purported discovery !!!! or Frédéric Imbert , the one to which this discovey is attributed except this (Graffiti islamiques du début de l’islam : nouvelles découvertes en Arabie saoudite, par M. Frédéric Imbert) except for his discovery of Arabic inscription dating back to the debut of Islam (http://www.canalacademie.com/ida10344-Graffiti-islamiques-du-debut-de-l-...) !!!!!
b- The only mention of such a discovery in addition to ancient-origins.net which dealt with the discovery in two articles , an original (8 August, 2014 - 03:33 aprilholloway) (http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-general/oldest-arabic-inscription-pr...) and this one after two long years with certain twisting and trumping (21 March, 2016 - 23:51 Sam Bostrom) !!!!! In addition to some Israeli newspapers , with another kind of trumping (this article trumps on Arabia was originally "Christian" before being Islamized ..... The Jewish-israeli version is that Arabia was Jewish before being "Islamized" .... (http://historybuff.com/remember-when-saudi-arabia-was-jewish-kingdom-MWV...)...... (http://www.haaretz.com/jewish/archaeology/.premium-1.709010), both are harping on the same idea , Saudi Arabia was a Jewish property !!!!
c- Le Monde (famous French Magazine) mentions nothing of crosses or Christians of the desert .... Totally similar to the ancient ancient.origins.net article dating in 2014 (http://www.lemonde.fr/sciences/article/2014/08/01/decouverte-archeologiq...) as well as the the source cited by Sam's article (http://www.arabnews.com/news/art-culture/611411)!
d- It is no problem to find Arabic writings in Najran (previously a part of Yemen which was Christian at the time of the Prophet Muhammad . From Yemen, Abraha, the deputy of the Abyssinian emperor in Yemen, moved with his army and herd of elephant to destroy the Kaaba. This army was destroyed and vanished at the foot of the Kaaba as mentioned in the Quranic chapter , the Elephant (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Fil)) ..... So, there is no problem in finding Christian texts in Najran, Yemen or Shaam and no astounding ,critical, embarrassing or unique discovery in that as I previously indicated !
e- I did not comment on the previous article (two years before by April Holloway) because it was scientific and to the point but I was obliged to comment on Sam's article which was written two years later because of the twisted and trumped data he added to the original article .

I would like Sam to comment on my research, otherwise , I'm right and he is Trump !!!!'

No Trump !!!!

Referring to "Trump" as a name or a verb (meaning uttering vulgar language and menthioning myths and utter hallucinations and preoccupations as facts (all Muslims are terrorists and should be banned and denied entry in the promiosed paradise of USA . All Mexican immigrants are rapists, druggists and criminals who should be outcast and shipped back to Mexico . I will build a wall, 10 feets high to barricade paradise (aka USA) off hell (aka Mexico)) ...... C.A Martin is using the same rehotoric when he mentions that Muslims are denying their women education !!!!! Or Muslims are disagreeable to Education !!!!! very funny indeed !!!!! Especially from someone who believes in words like 1 Cornithians 1:19-21 (For it is written: "I will destroy the wisdom of the wise; the intelligence of the intelligent I will frustrate." . Where is the wise person? Where is the teacher of the law? Where is the philosopher of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of the world?. For since in the wisdom of God the world through its wisdom did not know him, God was pleased through the foolishness of what was preached to save those who believe.) ..... Through Trump's foolishness , America will be great again (may be with the resurrection of the Ko Klux Klan , White Supremacy and re-introduction of slavery !!!!!! The Klan undeniably supports this rhetoric of Trump) ...... So, somebody who is preached with "Foolishness" is mocking about the lack of education of people whom the first word in their sacred book was "Read !"..... In psychology we call this as "Psychological Projection" , i.e. projecting someone faults and personality disorders on others ( e.g. a thief would quiten his conscience which is troubling him by convincing himself that all the people are thieves someway or the other! Or a fool or lunatic who is accusing all other people around him that they are the fools or lunatics ! ) !!!!!! Islam is not ISIS or Taliban except in the minds which are as sick as those of ISIS and Taliban !
Thank you for your lecture about slavery and law of slavery of Hagar and her son !!!!! That proves my point that I stated above !!!! No sane mind will approve slavery or invent a law for it except the same mind who considers that human blood "of the innocent" is required for atonement of sins " of the perpetual sinners" !!!!!
Well, back to the main topic !!!!!! The writer of this "twisted" article mentions "However, the Islamic text makes no mention of the numerous Christian and Jewish communities across the Saudi peninsula that flourished during the days of Mohammed. " .... I proved that Quran and Islamic texts about the biography of Muhammad were not ashamed to mention the presence of Christian minorities on the periphery of the Arabian peninsula in Iraq, Shaam (northern Arabia) and Yemen. Also Jews were present , and still present, in Yemen and lived as neighbors with the new Islamic state in Yathrib (Medina) ! That is the first fallacy !!!!
The second fallacy is attributing Arabic writing to just 100 years before the birth of Prophet Muhammad and that Christians were the writing ones ..... The Mo'allaqat which are the gems of Arabic Poetry and pinned to the walls of the holiest place in Arabia (Kaaba) have history predating that and none of the poets of those gems was Christian !!!!
Last thing, there is always the mix between Arabs and Muslims which is a funny mix that denotes poor knowledge and poor education ..... Not all Arabs are Muslims , and not all Muslims are Arabs or speak Arabic !!!!
Muslims do not believe that Islam was an "advent" and Muhammad established Islam ..... They believe Islam was the religion of Abraham (was Abraham a Christian or a Jew from the Judo-Christian view, did he believe in Jehovah or in Jesus as deity?) and Muhammad just revived the old religion ! ..... Surah 6. Al-An'am, Ayah 163, Abraham talking about God (He has no peer; thus am I commanded and I am the first of the Muslims) ..... Yet, you have to prove from the bible that Jesus (aka , Joshua Ben Pandera) called his new religion as Christianity or that he declared that he was preaching a new religion , not a reform movement or a sect of Judaism !!!!!

Edit: "God had already promised to make of Abraham a great nation" in last the paragraph should have been in parentheses to be more easily understood.

Did you not read in the article that they are speaking of Nabatean Arabic? What in the world does Trump have to do with this? It's a shame Islam is disagreeable to education, especially towards it's females.("Love for the poorly educated" !!!!!) You proved nothing wrong in the article, you merely added to it.
Advent simply means, the coming or arrival of something or someone that is important or worthy of note: such as the advent of the computer, you seem to have misunderstood it to mean the religious meaning of the word.
Ishmael was born under slavery to Hagar an Egyptian and slave (handmaid) of Sarah, Abraham's wife, and are still under spiritual slavery today but it was through Isaac birthed by Sarah his wife, not concubine or slave (not under slavery but freedom) the the promises would be fulfilled. (we are freed from the law of sin and death)
You intimate the Jews do not count Abraham as their father, that simply is not true. The Muslims seem to want to claim an exclusivity to Abraham but Moses wrote quit clearly, as God was quite clear to Moses that the promise would come through Isaac born of his wife. Yet he said that God would make of Ishmael a great nation as well God had already promised to make of Abraham a great nation because God saw the grief of Hagar, Sarah's slave (handmaid) When Ishmael was born their names were Abram and Sari, before the birth of Isaac God changed their names to Abraham and Sarah.

Whatever, you may say what you want history will not change because you order it to do so.

Si vis pacem, para bellum

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