All  
Neanderthal

Entire Neanderthal genome finally mapped – with amazing results

Print

The results of an extensive analysis of a 50,000-year-old toe bone belonging to a Neanderthal woman, which was unearthed in a cave in 2010, have been long awaited. Now, after much anticipation, the findings have finally been released by the journal Nature, and they have not disappointed. For the first time ever, researchers have completely sequenced the fossil’s nuclear DNA to the same extent and quality as that of genomes sequenced from present-day people.

All around the world, news headlines shout out about incest and inbreeding and other sensationalistic statements. Sadly, they are missing the most amazing results of all.

This incredible research has revealed the following:

  • There is now conclusive evidence that Neanderthals bred with Homo sapiens – a fact disputed for many years.  Some scientists claimed the two species had never even met.
  • Ancient human species, including Neanderthals, Denisovans and Homo sapiens mated with each other, resulting in an incredibly complex family tree.
  • The Denisovans share up to 8 percent of their genome with a “super achaic” and totally unknown species that dates back around 1 million years.
  • The results conflict with the theory that modern humans arose completely from one “out of Africa” migration more than 60,000 years ago that spread worldwide without mating with other early humans.
  • About 1.5 to 2.1 percent of the DNA of all people with European ancestry can be traced to Neanderthals.
  • Proportions of Neanderthal DNA are higher among Asians and Native Americans, who also have small percentages of Denisovan DNA.
  • 6 percent of the genome of Australian Aborigines and indigenous Papua New Guineans belong to the Denisovan species.
  • The Han Chinese, native to East Asia, and the Dai people of southern China are related to both Neanderthals and Denisovans.
  • Some indigenous people from Brazil, such as the Karitiana, are not only related to both Neanderthals and Denisovans, but they show relatively high genetic contributions from the Denisovans.
  • Only 87 genes responsible for making proteins in cells are different between modern humans and Neanderthals. Intriguingly, some of the gene differences involve ones involved in both immune responses and the development of brain cells in people.
  • Somewhere within these 87 genes may lay the answer to why Neanderthals and Denisovans became extinct.
  • And least consequential of all, the Neanderthal woman’s parents were related, possibly half-siblings, or an uncle and niece. As evolutionary biologist Mattias Jakobsson stated, the incest finding “is more of an anecdote”. The results from one individual cannot be applied to an entire species, in the same way that the recent discovery of an incest family in Australia does not apply to the whole of the human race.

The study really highlights that no race of people on earth belongs to one ancestral group, rather we all have “proportions of ancestral groups," said computational biologist Rasmus Nielsen of the University of California, Berkeley. What’s more, we can begin to contemplate the fact that we are all “connected to other species - extinct smart bipeds”.

So many answers have been provided from just one study and yet so many questions remain.

By April Holloway

Comments

You do know that Sitchin just made up translations of Sumerian words that he had no understanding of right? He wasn't a linguist, or a scholar. At best he was a sci fi writer, at worst a con artist who prayed on the gullible. Not one other person agrees with his translation. .because he made words up out of thin air. Fantasy dogrel, easy to check for yourself.

Have none of you read the Sitchin interpretations of the Sumarian clay tablets of some 7000 years ago? They are said to describe how alien scientists used their own DNA and crossed it with some other existing earth creature(s). Some versions were less successful, but the homeo sapien product worked, (barely!). Human DNA is among the most fragile and is the more easily disturbed DNA of any species. Those tablets argue for homeo sapien to be about 200,000 years old - a date similarly supported by geneticists. Are some of these older human species the failed genetic products of the aliens? Some shared DNA makes sense.

Is possible Mars was similar to Earth once and suffered the fate of global warming and comet strike and the remains of a strike came in bacteria form with in water which added to the portion of the missing link to human evolution?

"it doesn't take a scientist to foresee the outcome of that encounter. "

True, he wouldn't be a scientist anymore, he'd be a voyeur, which is a different species.

If they knowingly know of an unknown species, how can a known unknown still be unknown? Know what I mean? : ) Peoples being peoples and especially men being men, how did anyone ever think that our races/species would not have cross-breed? A bunch of guys on a exploration/hunting trip, days if not months from the home hearth come over a hill and see a bunch of Neanderthal, Homo Sapien or Denisovan women bent over washing up in a stream, it doesn't take a scientist to foresee the outcome of that encounter.

Pages

Next article