Cleopatra and Caesar (1866). Painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme.

The Wisdom of Cleopatra, the Intellectual Queen Who Could Outsmart Them All

Cleopatra VII is not only a famous person in history, she is also the icon of a rich and powerful culture. She was usually depicted as a lover of great men, but the truth was different. More...
Mural of siege warfare, Genghis Khan Exhibit in San Jose, California, US

Palms Over Baghdad: Tumbling to Dust during the Mongol Invasion – Part II

The Fall of Bagdad Hulegu sent messages to his commanders informing them to muster their forces and move on Baghdad. Baiju moved his forces from Rum via Mosul to cover the western side. Ked-Buka...
Conquest of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1258.

Palms Over Baghdad: Riches and Fear during the Mongol Invasion – Part I

In 1253 CE, a breeze began to blow into Baghdad from the east. Unbeknownst to Al-Musta'sim, the Abbasid Caliph, this breeze would soon turn into a violent shamal (wind). This shamal was gaining...