Petralona Cave - Greece

The human skull that challenges the Out of Africa theory


This is the account of the discovery of a skull that has the potential to change what we know about human evolution, and a suppression and cover-up which followed.   

In 1959, in an area called Chalkidiki in Petralona, Northern Greece, a shepherd came across a small opening to a cave, which became visible when a thick covering of snow finally melted.  He gathered a group of villagers to help him clear the entrance so they could go inside and explore.  They found a cave rich in stalactites and stalagmites. But they also found something surprising – a human skull embedded in the wall (later research also uncovered a huge number of fossils including pre-human species, animal hair, fossilized wood, and stone and bone tools).   

Petralona SkullThe skull was given to the University of Thessaloniki in Greece by the President of the Petralona Community. The agreement was that once the research was done, a museum would be opened featuring the findings from the Petralona cave, and the skull would be returned to be displayed in the museum – something that never happened.

Dr Aris Poulianos, member of the UNESCO's IUAES (International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences), later founder of the Anthropological Association of Greece , and an expert anthropologist who was working at the University of Moscow at the time, was invited by the Prime Minister of Greece to return to Greece to take a position of a University Chair in Athens.  This was due to the publication of his book, ‘The Origins of the Greeks’, which provides excellent research showing that Greek people didn’t originate from the Slavic nations but were indigenous to Greece.  Upon his return to Greece, Dr Poulianos was made aware of the discovery of the skull at Petralona, and immediately started studying the Petralona cave and skull.

The ‘Petralona man’, or Archanthropus of Petralona, as it has since been called, was found to be 700,000 years old, making it the oldest human europeoid (presenting European traits) of that age ever discovered in Europe. Dr Poulianos’ research showed that the Petralona man evolved separately in Europe and was not an ancestor of a species that came out of Africa. 

In 1964, independent German researchers, Breitinger and Sickenberg, tried to dismiss Dr Poulianos’ findings, arguing that the skull was only 50,000 years old and was indeed an ancestor that came from Africa.  However, research published in the US in 1971 in the prestigious Archaeology magazine, backed up the findings that the skull was indeed 700,000 years old.  This was based on an analysis of the cave’s stratigraphy and the sediment in which the skull was embedded.  Further research in the cave discovered isolated teeth and two pre-human skeletons dating back 800,000 years, as well as other fossils of various species.

Today, most academics who have analyzed the Petralona remains say that the cranium of the Archanthropus of Petralona belongs to an archaic hominid distinguished from Homo erectus, and from both the classic Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans, but showing characterists of all those species and presenting strong European traits.  A skull dating back 700,000 which is either Homo sapien or part Homo sapien is in direct conflict with the Out of Africa theory of human evolution.  

Petralona Man

Further excavations continued in the cave of Petralona with the participation of international researchers (46 specialists from 12 separate countries), which provided further proof of Dr Poulianos’ claims, including remarkable findings like fossilized pieces of wood, an oak leaf, animal hair and coprolites, which enabled accurate dating, as well as the almost continuous presence of stone and bone tools of the Archanthropus evolutionary stage, from the lower (750,000 years) to the upper (550,000 years) layers of sediment within the cave.

The research, after an interruption due to the dictatorship in Greece, continued up to 1983. It was then ordered by the government that all excavations at the site were forbidden to anyone, including the original archaeological team, and for 15 years nobody had access to the site or to the findings – no reason was provided by the government.  Was this denial of access to prevent the extraction of whatever new scientific conclusions remained hidden within the incredible fossils embedded within the layers of the caves’ walls? 

After the Anthropological Society of Greece took the case to the courts, 15 years later they were again allowed access to the cave.  Since then the Ministry of Culture is trying in any way to overcome the Courts decision and further trials proceed.

Aris PoulianosDr Poulianos’ findings contradicted conventional views regarding human evolution and his research was suppressed.  Dr Poulianos and his wife were physically attacked and injured in their home in 2012 and the culprits were never found. He and his team have been denied further access to the cave to complete their research and study, and the whereabouts of the skull is now unknown.  

Today a sign sits outside the cave of Petralona stating that the skull found in the cave was 300,000 years old, and on Wikipedia today you will see references dismissing the evidence and trying to date the Petralona skull within acceptable parameters – between 160,000 and 240,000 years old.  

Recently, Professor C.G. Nicholas Mascie-Taylor of the University of Cambridge sent a letter to the Ministry of Culture in Greece saying that the correct date of the skull is 700,000 years old and not 300,000. He has also challenged the government’s suppression of information regarding this incredible discovery. 

The Greek Ministry of Education, Religions, Culture and Sports,

Bouboulinas 20-22,

Athens 106 82,


5 September 2012

Dear Sir,

I am writing on behalf of the European Anthropological Association, which is the umbrella professional and academic association linking all of the national European biological anthropology and human biology societies, to express our concerns about the conservation of the Petralona Cave and Skull, the misinformation of the dating of the skull, as well as the treatment of personnel associated with the conservation of the Cave.

The bases of our concerns are that the skull has been damaged through many scratches and the crown of a tooth (1st molar) cut off. As requested by Anthropological Association of Greece what is required is a detailed description of the present status of the skull, so that no one in future can arbitrarily damage it further. There is also the problem of dating which has been scientifically dated at about 700,000 years ago not 300,000 as is given at the information desk. There is a very detailed record of the excavations and findings which need to receive further public presentation but which have never been catalogued so as to prevent specimens going missing.

It is very unfortunate that the Greek Archaeological Department stopped Dr Aris Poulianos from further work in the Cave without any explanation. It is also very worrying that Dr Poulianos and his wife were physically attacked and injured in their home earlier this year and the culprits have not been found. He was also verbally abused when attempting to give an invited presentation to teachers and school children.

Senior anthropologists and geologists have also been denied access to the Cave and the specimens for further study on a number of occasions without substantive reasons. Earlier this year there has also been misinformation given to the Greek Parliament concerning financial aspects of the Cave.

I look forward to receiving answers to these questions.

Yours faithfully

Professor C G N Mascie-Taylor MA, PhD, ScD (all Cambridge), FSB, FNAS (Hungary)

Professor of Human Population Biology and Health and President of the European Anthropological Association


The most important conclusion of Dr Poulianos' research regards the co-existence of all main anthropological types (African – Kobi, Asian – Beijing and European – Petralona) at the same almost period (700,000, 500,000 and 750,000 respectively). That means: the appearance of the today human main populations (races or even better phyllae - from the Greek language and that’s why polyphyletic etc) is tending to almost 1,000,000 m.y.a. and not to only 10,000 or 30,000 years as currently considered world wide.

However, independently if there is a scientific dispute on the above, it is only sad to become aware that research is not allowed to those who are not coordinated to the “standard” knowledge, risking even their lives in front of gun shooters. 

Is this a cover up of an incredible discovery that the powers-that-be do not want us to have access to?  You be the judge.

Update from editor 31 December, 2018: Dr Poulianos wrote to Ancient Origins to state that unfortunately the suppression of information regarding the Petralona skull has continued:

“Experiencing the above I am asserting that the prohibition of research regarding human history is due to the following (most obvious, i.e. not exposing political) reasons: 

Various (Worldwide) Universities and their state allied forums have the power to influence all of the small range national institutions in order to achieve the aforementioned prohibition. In turn, this is most probably due to the fact that such research is allowed only to some “confidential” persons. Thus, re-righting chapters of human history is only their “right”. Whoever does not belong to such clubs and / or forums has to be stopped by all existing means, even by falsifying the truth against well documented evidence (i.e. without providing any scientific contradicting argument). Obviously I am asserting that knowledge is under control, especially what concerns human history. Therefore I agree with Lenie Reedijk’s description regarding the “Cover Up”, as well as the following comments to her article.”

By John Black

Related Links

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And the 15% of humanoids currently on the planet with Rh negative blood? Where did they begin? This planet has been an enormous laboratory for the beginnings and eventual ends of several experimental gene pools deposited all over the world, and many have either failed completely, or been interbred with other humanoid species to produce the humanity we see with every imaginable shape, size, color and attributes or flaws we encounter every single day. It's not the color of skin, but the shared humanity and the collective aim for the very stars we came from with no exceptions.
Africa was a cradle for some, Russia for others, India another, possibly both poles and so on. Let's not lose sight of the possibilities and the fact we're closer than ever to knowing and finally accepting we are gods and goddesses, each and every one of us because that's exactly what created us 'in the beginning'.

Archaeologists and Scientists have been speculating for years that this region of the planet was populated by homo sapien probably before they populated northern asia. Instead of the ngenerally accepted theory that indonesia was populated by ppls from tiawan, It was the other way around. Mitochondrial DNA tells a different story. Around 11,000 years ago, china and tiawan was populated from the south. The area the cave paintings were found in was sulawesi island. Sulawesi island also has megalithic monuments that have been shown on history channel a few times. Not only that, but megalithic sites on many of these remote tropical islands. I believe there are at least 2000 islands off the coast of indonesia. There is currently a project underway called the Sunda Shelf Archaeology program. They're dealing with searching for a pre ice age civilization that may have existed on the sunda shelf (S.E. Asian Peninsula) some 12,000 years ago, during the last glacial maximum. They have done work in java, and the indian ocean. Before the icecaps melted, this area might have been some 2.5 million square miles which would have been prime real estate for the 1st humans leaving africa. Lemuria, Mu, Sundaland, were all the same landmass. Others have also talked about a landmass in the pacific island that sunk beneath the ocean. There are plenty of myths and legends referring to an ancient forgotten civilization and only a few of their descendants remain today. Sundaland was part of the Asian continental shelf that was exposed during the last ice age. This was roughly 12,000 years ago. Similar to the speculations of the late Philosopher Plato and the late psychic Edgar Cayce who both give times periods of around 9,000-10,500 bc. If Nan Madol had existed over 12,000 years ago, then it wouldve been apart of the Sunda shelf which was exposed during the last ice age. Same goes for Angkor in cambodia, and borabudor temple in indonesia. these monuments, I believe were built during the time when the sunda shelf was fully exposed. Graham hancock has written several books regarding angkor and its alignment with the stars which occurred according to him, in 10,500 bc. The last time Nan Madol may have been fully above water was probably over 12,000 years ago based on the geological evidence I've presented. Sundaland was actually lemuria. and ancient continent located in the pacific, with a tropical climate, biogeographic diversity, and an ancient culture which onced lived there. the sunda shelf fits this idea of lemuria quite perfectly in my opinion and the location os the sunda shelf is a bit more believable than a continent located smackdab in the pacifie ocean. and even if theyre were a continent larger than africa in the pacific ocean, then it would also give more evidence to my theory of plate tectonic activity which may have contributed to its destruction. These shelves work like conveyer belts whcih could swallow up entire landmasses. Nan madol is a temple created from volcanic rock. The easter island moai may have also been linked to the sunda shelf 12,000 years ago. I believe this is a major clue as well. Im just an interested guy in this subject. no degree or PhD. just a regular guy who wants answers.

Years ago I had a student who became a photographer as his profs at uni were intent on only having students imbibe current THEORY as FACT.

Nobody teaching theory as fact is anything other than an entertainer and a charlatan.

This applies equally to Stephen Hawking, Brian Cox and Jim Alkalili (who cannot even produce proof than the multiplication of minus numbers produces a positive number (eg as taught in schools STILL -3x-3=9!) I asked him but he couldn't.

So whilst it is interesting to discover stuff and attempt to date it, it is stupid to makeup stories about it. And teach them to kids. This also means alternative theories are as equally BS.
Including all the paranormal theorists around!

Believe what you like, do, but please dont imagine this entitles you to make a living out of it!! Listen to Cameron or Blair or Trump or Boris Johnson . Their prophecies of the consequences of the UK leaving the EU are ALL unsubstantiated THEORIES embarked upon by beings who all know their jobs are at risk and are anyway of no value...

I never let myself just believe something that I'm told conventional wisdom is always wrong and that is what we have to deal with, no matter what I see in a documentary or what I'm told by scientists. I think it's ridiculous, we put so much importance and just believe everything we hear. Whenever "scientists say something" it must be believed as if what scientists say is truth. No actually we only have subjective science based entirely on human observation which can be incredibly flawed and to tell people to accept something as truth is unscientific because chances are there is already another scientific theory or discovery that challenges what you have been told or have discovered. This then becomes academic political correctness and once you start to challenge anything you're treated like your crazy or have no credibility.

In reality there has been a ton of scams and education based entirely on theory and not actual proof. The public education system we have in the united states is a perfect example of what I'm talking are expected to sit at your desk, listen to the teacher and believe everything and then be subject to almost useless standardized tests, you read text books which are not accurate on a lot of simple information and if you dare challenge anything you will be scoffed at, ridiculed and outcast. What we have today is not science but as I said before we have a education system based almost entirely on scientific and social theory. We see this especially in High Schools and in Universities.

Any new "findings" about the origins of man are considered heresy. For over 200 years, archaeologist have followed the accepted stories with few exceptions. Those archaeologists that do not are censured and their careers destroyed. So much of what people think they know derived from what is acceptable is based on lies because the establishment is afraid that the average human won't be able to accept the fact that ancient mythologies are not fiction but actual fact.

We are not alone and have never been alone in the universe. Mankind on this planet sprang from many different roots and many different genetic experiments that began with our hominid ancestors' DNA blended with the colonists' DNA to create a brand new (or several brand new) species that have their roots on this planet. The establishment believes that we poor average people cannot handle the truth so they keep it hidden and everything else covered with lies while proof is dumped into the oceans or hidden away in the basements of museums.

Dr. Poulianos and archaeologists and historians like Brien Foerster and others are speaking out and refusing to lie about their findings and being criticized and discredited and their work and findings suppressed and called into question to keep the truth hidden. We are no longer children and we can handle the truth and those like Dr. Poulianos will continue to follow their conscience no matter what is done to them. The truth will not be denied.


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