Pre-Columbian Murals and Norse Sagas Suggest Vikings Met the Aztecs, and the Outcome Was Not Pretty

Pre-Columbian Murals and Norse Sagas Suggest Vikings Met the Aztecs, and the Outcome Was Not Pretty


Did the Vikings visit Pre-Columbian Mexico? The depiction of white people on Chichen Itza murals in the Temple of the Warriors probably represent Vikings - the major European navigators around the time this temple was built. This suggests the tradition of the “White Lords” who had visited Mexico before the Spanish were the Vikings.

Norse Sagas Discussing Voyages that May Have Landed in Mexico

Hans Ebeling published the book ‘ Die Reise in die Vergangenheit III. Die Europäer gewinnen den Erdball. Geschichte der Neuzeit bis’ , in 1789. In his text, Ebeling talked about how Moctezuma II welcomed Hernán Cortés as Quetzalcoatl. Guðrún Guðmundsdóttir and Björn Thorsteinsson translated Ebeling’s book into Icelandic. They discussed the Eyrbggia saga in the epilogue. This saga mentions two possible Vikings who may have sailed to the Yucatan region of Mexico - Gudleif Gudlaugson (c.1025 AD) and Björn Breiðvíkingakappi (c.965).

Guðmundsdóttir and Thorsteinsson claim that the Eyrbyggja saga describes how Björn Breiðvíkingakappi (Björn the champion of the Broadwickers) sailed around Ireland and landed in Mexico.



Drawing of Norsemen in a ship by Oscar Wergeland.

Drawing of Norsemen in a ship by Oscar Wergeland. ( Public Domain )

There are also three traditions of the Norse Sagas that mention that in 965 or 986 Ari Marson set sail from Ireland in an attempt to reach Greenland. The story has it that Marson’s ship ran into rough seas and a storm threw him off course. Within six days he had reached Mexico instead. The Eyrbggia saga and the voyage of Ari Marson may explain how the first white people got to the Yucatan.

Mural in the Temple of the Warriors, Chichen Itza, Mexico. The image shows light-skinned men as they pack to retreat by sea, while others defend a village or are taken away as prisoners.

Mural in the Temple of the Warriors, Chichen Itza, Mexico. The image shows light-skinned men as they pack to retreat by sea, while others defend a village or are taken away as prisoners. ( The Plumed Conch )

The White Lords’ Return

Many researchers claimed that tens of thousands of indigenous peoples helped Hernán Cortés conqueror the Mexica (Aztecs) in 1519. They formed a confederation of a number of disparate peoples who wanted to throw off the Aztec yoke.

Some researchers claim that the tribes joined the conquistadors’ in defeating the Aztecs because they represented a return of the “white lords”. However, most researchers say that this story about “white lords” was a myth created during the Spanish conquest. Restall wrote that: “The legend of the returning lords, originated during the Spanish-Mexica war in Cortés' reworking of Moctezuma's welcome speech, had by the 1550's merged with the Cortés-as-Quetzalcoatl legend that the Franciscans had started spreading in the 1530s.”

Codex Azcatitlan page depicting the Spanish army, with Hernán Cortés and Malinche in front.

Codex Azcatitlan page depicting the Spanish army, with Hernán Cortés and Malinche in front. ( Public Domain )

But this story of “white lords” in Pre-Columbian Mexico may make sense. The Temple of the Warriors in Chichen Itza suggests that Europeans had visited Mexico between 600-900 AD. Murals in the temple depict black, white, and brown people. In some of these murals one can see whites fighting and in bondage to blacks.

White prisoners in bondage to blacks.

White prisoners in bondage to blacks. ( In the Cavity of a Rock )

The Complex Dance of the Giants

In Esotericism of the Popol Vuh by Raphael Girard, one reads about the ‘Dance of the Giants’. This Mayan dance appears to represent a Pre-Columbian conflict between white and black people in Mexico.

This book is quite illuminating. In it, Girard discusses the Dance of the Black Giants. The dance of the Black Giants explains the reason why the other indigenous peoples joined the Spanish in destroying the Aztec nation. Girard's description of the Dance of the Giants is startling. He wrote:

“In the following episode, Apparition, the vicissitudes undergone by the White Giant, who has fallen into the hands of his rival, are mimed. The Black Giant "intimidates" his opponent by beating the ground furiously with his sword while he makes menacing gestures and movements in hopes of touching or wounding the White Giant, who defends himself as best he can by trying to evade and riposte the thrusts. The battle is suspended at intervals while the giants pay homage to the sun, but is then immediately resumed with greater fury. During the whole episode the Black Giant maintains a menacing stance, not only toward his rival but also toward the large audience witnessing the spectacle. Both actors watch each other constantly, trying to take advantage of the smallest error of the other. For whole minutes they are motionless like statues, then cautiously cross swords as they dart glances around in all directions as if fearing some invisible danger. Then they come to grips and each places the point of his sword against his opponent's neck, a tragic pose that lasts but an instant. Finally the Black Giant succeeds in decapitating the White Giant "because his power is greater," an episode that for the Chortí represents the moment "when our Lord was suffering under the dominion of the bad spirit.”

The defeat of the white giant by the black giant is not the end of the dance. In the Dance of the Giants a white person called Gavite returns to Mexico and helps the indigenous peoples defeat the black giants. Girard explains:

“Finally, Gavite decapitates the Black Giant and takes away his sword, after the giant humbly says to him: "Rest a moment, child, and I will give you your payment, because I now yield myself, and even my heart trembles." He acknowledges himself vanquished and a tribute-payer to Gavite from thenceforward. But the hero-god replies: "There is no rest now, boastful giant, because we are beginning the end of the labor [hornada]." We note here for the reader's better understanding that the word hornada means task, act, or ceremony, and is a term frequently employed by Chortí elders in that sense.”

Scene from the traditional ‘Dance of the Giants’ showing Gavite and the Black Giant, amongst other characters.

Scene from the traditional ‘Dance of the Giants’ showing Gavite and the Black Giant, amongst other characters. ( Theosophical University Press Online Edition )

Girard continues the tale:

“There is no discrepancy between the Chortí and the Quiché sources regarding the manner of killing the chief of the infernal forces. Gavite cuts off his head, just as Hunahpú did that of Hun Camé in the Popol Vuh: "The first to be cut off was the head of the one called Hun Camé, the great Lord of Xibalbá." Offering the Black Giant's head and sword as trophies to the King and Captain, Gavite says: "Here I bring you the head of this giant, with a blade of steel from my sling, from my battle. It will overcome the whole world, since if you do not subdue it, it will be your subduer.”

The Chichen Itza mural indicates that the indigenous peoples had sided with the blacks when the whites first attempted to invade Mexico. However, it later appears that they felt the ‘black giants’ were arrogant and boastful and they wanted to overthrow them – even though they originally had helped defeat the Vikings.

The Dance of the Giants probably represents the fight between the whites and blacks for power. The whites lost the first battle (as depicted in the murals at Chichen Itza) but the Maya people were used as pawns by the blacks to defeat the whites. In one of the murals one can see a blond-haired man being sacrificed by two black men.

A part of a mural showing a blond-haired man being sacrificed by two black men.

A part of a mural showing a blond-haired man being sacrificed by two black men. ( In the Cavity of a Rock )

Describing the Aztecs

Although many of the Indigenous peoples sided with the blacks in their battle against the white invaders in Pre-Columbian times, by the time the Spanish arrived in Mexico the black rulers, namely the Aztecs, were mistreating the other groups of Indigenous peoples.

The Spanish described the Aztecs as follows: “The people of this land are well made, rather tall than short. They are swarthy as leopards, of good manners and gestures, for the greater part very skillful, robust, and tireless, and at the same time the most moderate men known. They are very warlike and face death with the greatest resolution.”

Folio 65r of the Codex Mendoza, a mid-16th century Aztec codex.

Folio 65r of the Codex Mendoza, a mid-16th century Aztec codex. ( Public Domain )

Archaeological evidence, Mayan and Spanish descriptions, and pictorial evidence from the codices indicate the Aztecs may have been black people. This would not be surprising because the Paleo-Americans Luzia and Naia were also black.

In addition to the Spanish describing the Aztecs as black ‘like leopards and jaguars.’ The Mayas called the Aztecs xilaan “curly or frizzy hair”, which is characteristic of Sub-Saharan Africans. Furthermore, one can find Black/Negro/African people in the Mexican codices, including the Codex Telleriano and Codex Mendoza .

Detail of page 30 of the Codex Borbonicus.

Detail of page 30 of the Codex Borbonicus. ( FAMSI)

Connecting the Dots

In summary, it would appear that the character named Gavite in the Dance of the Giants represents the Spanish. The blacks defeated by Gavite were the Aztecs, who were identified by the Maya and Spanish as black and were represented in the codices as a horrible people who mistreated the other local tribes.

The whites who landed at Chichen Itza were Vikings. The Vikings were well-known navigators that sailed to many nations in Europe, including Great Britain. They may have been sailing in the Atlantic and were mislaid by a storm until they reached Mexico.

As Dennis Tedlock notes in Popol Vuh: The Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life : “They didn’t know where they were going. They did this for a long time, when they were there in the grasslands: the black people, the white people , people of many faces, people of many languages, uncertain there at the edge of the sky” (pp.149-150). This mention of whites and blacks in the Popol Vuh supports the diverse populations depicted in the Chichen Itza murals.

A mural from the Chichen Itza Temple of the Warriors.

A mural from the Chichen Itza Temple of the Warriors. ( Copyleft)

Top Image: Detail of a mural from Chichen Itza’s Temple of the Warriors. Source: Celticnz

By Clyde Winters


Raphael Girard, Esotericism of the Popol Vuh, Chapter 15.

Restall, Matthew (2003). Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

POPOL VUH: THE MAYAN BOOK OF THE DAWN OF LIFE, translated by Dennis Tedlock.

Þórunn Valdimarsdóttir, Vikings in Mexico 998 AD?


It is painfully obvious that you have only a weak grasp of modern genomic techniques and results. Your scientific acumen seems to have ossified sometime in the late 90s. Yes, Genomic studies do indeed trump Morphometrics and, they always will. There are a multitude of factors which can and do influence the shape and size of the human skull. these influences can be genetic, dietary, environmental and even cultural. Often times, multiple factors come into play. These can influence bone robustisity, density and shape. The ONLY way to determine, without doubt, the affinities of a bone is through genomic analysis. Morphometric analysis is basically the equivalent of an educated guess and while it can augment genomic analysis, on it's own it's pretty useless unless there is no genetic material to analyze. Take, for example the titles of the articles you've posted above.3 of the 4 have the term Morphological "Affinities" in the title. Now, what is the scientific meaning of the term "Affinities"?

.a similarity of characteristics SUGGESTING a relationship, especially a RESEMBLANCE in structure between animals, plants, or languages.
synonyms: similarity, resemblance, likeness, kinship, relationship, association, link, analogy, similitude, correspondence.

Notice that NO WHERE does it say "denoting" or "demonstrating" a relationship?

Look at the synonyms. Most are analogous to "suggesting". Some are a bit stronger as with "kinship" and "relationship" but, these terms are more likely to appear in a linguistics paper than one discussing the ancient art of crainiometry and there's a VERY good reason for that. That reason dates back the the 18th and 19th century when scientists attempted to reify a hierarchical theory of race. Of curse, these "scientists"came up with a chart that placed western Europeans at the top and Africans at the bottom with the so called "mongoloid races", Semitic peoples and Eastern Europeans occupying various rungs on the ladder of progress all based upon...CRANIOMETRIC ANALYSIS". Confirmation bias allowed western Europeans to put their "finger on the scale" and, as Stephen Gould so eloquently put it "Mismeasure Man". The first round was all about Cranial Capacity", A bigger brain was OBVIOUSLY a better brain. Of course, it was soon discovered that researchers had been under loading African skulls all along which gave the impression of a smaller brain. Remeasuring soon proved that African skulls were just as capacious ad European ones. Next came skull shape. Long skulls were, it was said, less desirable than round ones as round ones OBVIOUSLY had a greater proportion of frontal lobe than long ones and as most Western Europeans had round skulls... But...OOPS! Seems it turned out that British Skulls tended to be long. No problem, just change the theory. long skulls were suddenly very vogue.In the end it turned out that the shape of the skull was simply TOO VARIABLE to be of any use in this matter. Seems there is so much overlap that all skull types are represented in all populations. Yes, there are a few hallmarks that can be useful in assigning a skull to a CONTEMPORARY population but over all, skull shape is a bust. Genetics on the other hand, pretty much work EVERY TIME. Genes are not subject to the same environmental influences that bones are and due to the rules of inheritance and known mutation rates, genes make a damn good map of the human diaspora. In other words, you can use genotypes to trace the migration of human groups in space AND time with a great level of accuracy. One that is simply not possible with Morphometrics.

Clyde Winters's picture

Genetics do not supercede skeletal remains. Any member of a population can carry a particular haplogroup—but skeletal remains provide the ethnic identification of a population. In the 1960’s there  was a return to the study of craniometric quantitative analysis and  multivariate methods to determine the Native American population (Neves ,  Powell and Ozolins,  1998,1999a,199b; Powell, 2005). This research indicated that the ancient Americans represent two populations, paleoamericans who were phenotypically African, Australian or Melanesian and a mongoloid population that appears to have arrived in the Americas after 6000 BC. 

Neves W.A . and Pucciarelli H.M. 1991. "Morphological Affinities of the First Americans: an exploratory analysis based on early South American human remains". Journal of Human Evolution 21:261-273.

Neves W.A ., Powell J.F. and Ozolins E.G. 1999. "Extra-continental morphological affinities of Lapa Vermelha IV Hominid 1: A multivariate analysis with progressive numbers of variables. Homo 50:263-268

 Neves W.A ., Powell J.F. and Ozolins E.G. 1999. "Extra-continental morphological affinities of Palli-Aike, Southern Chile". Interciencia 24:258-263.

Powell,J.F. (2005). First Americans:Races, Evolution  and the Origin of Native Americans. Cambridge University Press.

I think you should review the meaning of the term "proof". NONE of these article "prove" anything. They all make the same basic claim: these skeletons "look like" African skeletons. This claim is meaningless in the face of modern genomic studies which have proven conclusively that there is no African genetic component in ancient America. Period.Perhaps you should put aside your preconceived notions and read some studies from THIS century?

Clyde Winters's picture

Alexander von Wuthenau was not a crackpot. In his several books he proved that Meso-America was a multiracial society where nationalities from all over the world, met,  mated and traded with one another. Your  irrational  belief that there were no Blacks in Mexico before Columbus can no longer be supported given the fact that the paleoamericans Luzia of Brazil and Naia of Mexico were phenotypically African  Melanesia or Australian according to Neves and Critters, people who we classify as Blacks. The fact that the Polish physical anthropologist Wiercinski, found Mongoloid, African and European skeletons at Olmec sites make it clear that when von Wuthenau wrote about the multi-ethnic heritage of Mexico , his findings were valid and true. There is no evidence that the present mongoloid Indians of Mexico killed off all the paleoamericans, so it is ludicrous for you to claim that there were no Blacks in Mexico, when the Spanish claimed the Chontal Maya and Aztecs were Blacks.



Von Wuthenau, Alexander. (1980). Unexplained Faces in Ancient America, 2nd Edition, Mexico 1980.

Wiener, Leo.(1922). Africa and the Discovery of America.

Wiercinski, A.(1969). Affinidades raciales de algunas poblaiones antiquas de Mexico, Anales de INAH, 7a epoca, tomo II, 123-143.


Wiercinski,A. (1972). Inter-and Intrapopulational Racial Differentiation of Tlatilco, Cerro de Las Mesas, Teothuacan, Monte Alban and Yucatan Maya, XXXlX Congreso Intern. de Americanistas, Lima 1970 ,Vol.1, 231-252.


Wiercinski,A. (1972b). An anthropological study on the origin of "Olmecs", Swiatowit ,33, 143-174.


Wiercinski, A. & Jairazbhoy, R.A. (1975) "Comment", The New Diffusionist,5 (18),5.

LOL, paleoagricultural studies whold say you're wrong. Clearly, you have no idea how civilizations evolve. Simply claiming that someone once said the Olmec arrived by sea is meaningless. What is important to note is that Mesoamerican structures are not built like those of other regions (another point that makes them unique). Mesoamerican buildings are built using the rubble fill technique. Rather than tear down the previous structure a new one is built around and over it with the space between being filled with rubble. You end up with a series of nested buildings. Hence, the buildings we see today are the end stage of hundreds of years of architectural evolution. In some cases the initial structure was made of wood. So, contrary to your statement, the Olmec monumental buildings did not suddenly appear out of no where.


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