Why was Alfred the Great One of Only Two Kings Named ‘Great’ in English History?
Alfred the Great was a king of Wessex, and the first king of the Anglo-Saxons. Alfred is one of only two English rulers to have been given the epithet ‘the Great’ (the other being Cnut the Great) and is often remembered as one of England’s greatest Anglo-Saxon rulers. It was thanks to Alfred that England was not completely conquered by the Vikings. Additionally, Alfred encouraged learning and literacy, and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles , an important source of information for the history of Anglo-Saxon England, began during his reign.
When Was Alfred the Great Born?
Alfred the Great was born on the 23 rd of April, 849 AD in Wantage, Berkshire. He was the fifth son of Aethelwulf the king of Wessex, one of the seven petty kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England. As Alfred had five older brothers, it seemed unlikely that he would inherit his father’s throne. Alfred himself seemed to have been more interested in scholarly pursuits. For instance, as a young boy, Alfred visited Rome which may have awakened his interest in Latin learning. Additionally, his mother aroused his interest in English poetry at an early age.
Alfred's father King Æthelwulf of Wessex in the early fourteenth-century. (bl.uk / Public Domain )
Father’s Death and Order of Succession
Aethelwulf died in 858 AD and was succeeded by his second son Aethelbald. His oldest son, Aethelstan, had perished before him. At that time, England was under constant attack from the Vikings of Denmark. In order to ensure the stability of the kingdom after his death, Aethelwulf had the succession of the kingship arranged in such a way that the throne would be passed from older to younger brother, rather than from father to son. Therefore, when Aethelwulf’s fourth son, Aethelred died in 871 AD, Alfred succeeded him, even though the former had two infant sons.
What Was Alfred’s Priority as King?
The most important matter that Alfred had to deal with as king of Wessex was the problem of the Vikings. Alfred was defeated at Wilton shortly after succeeding his brother and was forced to make peace. It is likely that the king paid tribute to the Vikings, who then left Wessex in peace for the next couple of years. The Vikings then launched a campaign against the Kingdom of Mercia, which lasted until 874 AD.
- Burning, Pillaging, and Carving up the Lands: Viking Raids into England - Part II
- Halfdan Ragnarsson: Viking Commander and King of Dublin
- Archaeologists on Mission to Find Remains of Saxon King, ‘Alfred the Great’
A map of the route taken by the Viking Great Heathen Army which arrived in England from Denmark, Norway, and southern Sweden in 865 AD. (Hel-hama / CC BY-SA 3.0 )
The Vikings Seize Chippenham
In 876 AD the Vikings turned their attention to the Kingdom of Wessex once more. In January 878 AD, Chippenham in Wiltshire was seized by the Vikings. This was a devastating blow to Alfred, as the Vikings had a secure base from which they could launch further attacks on Wessex. The king, however, managed to escape and resorted to guerrilla tactics in his war against the invaders.
Alfred Defeats the Vikings
In May 878 AD the Vikings were defeated at the Battle of Edington and Alfred pressed his advantage by pursuing the Vikings to Chippenham. Following a siege of 14 days the Vikings surrendered. Alfred realized, however, that it would be impossible to expel the rest of the Vikings form England by force and therefore he concluded a peace treaty with the defeated Vikings. Under the treaty, their king Guthrum converted to Christianity with Alfred as his godfather and many of the Vikings returned to East Anglia to settle as farmers.
The Saxon king Alfred the Great penetrates the Danish camp disguised as a wandering minstrel, in order to get intelligence. (John Haare / Public Domain )
A Period of Peace Results in a Divided England
Wessex was left in peace until 885 AD when Kent was invaded by the Vikings from Denmark, aided by those who settled in East Anglia. Alfred defeated this army and a partition treaty was negotiated. This treaty effectively divided England between Alfred and the Danes. The latter controlled northern and eastern England, an area that became known as the ‘ Danelaw’. As Alfred had captured London in the same year, the rest of England that was not under Danish rule came to acknowledge him as king. It was also at this time that Alfred adopted the title ‘King of the Anglo-Saxons’.
The Vikings Do Not Give Up but Alfred Remains Victorious
Nevertheless, the Danish Vikings continued to attack Alfred, though with little success and they finally gave up in 896 AD. One of the reasons for the failure of the Vikings is that Alfred was much more prepared for them than he had been when he first came to power. In addition to building well-defended settlements in his kingdom, Alfred also reorganized his army and maintained good diplomatic relations with both the Mercians and Welsh.
What Were Alfred’s Other Outstanding Qualities?
Apart from successfully defending England against the Vikings, Alfred was a competent administrator and remembered especially for his attitude towards learning. For instance, he invited scholars not only from England but also from Continental Europe to his court. Additionally, he had important Latin books translated into English, including Saint Gregory I’s Pastoral Care and Saint Augustine of Hippo’s Soliloquies, so that his countrymen could read and benefit from these works. Moreover, all young freemen of adequate means were required to learn to read English.
The Boyhood of Alfred the Great, his love for learning and literacy was one of his outstanding qualities. ( Kirklees Museums / Public Domain )
Alfred’s Resolve for Education Propelled Important Works
With the revival of intellectual activity in England during Alfred’s rule it is little wonder that the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles began to be written towards the end of his reign. This piece of work is the most important written resource for the Anglo-Saxon period in England. The chronicles continue well into the Norman period and nine interrelated manuscripts have survived in whole or in part. The historical importance of each manuscript varies and the original is not known to have survived.
Alfred the Great died on the 26 th of October, 899 AD and was succeeded by his son Edward the Elder.
Statue of Alfred the Great at Winchester unveiled during the millennial commemoration in 1899 of Alfred's death. (Odejea / CC BY-SA 3.0 )
New World Encyclopedia, 2016. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. [Online] Available at: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Anglo-Saxon_Chronicle
The BBC, 2014. Alfred the Great (849 AD - 899 AD). [Online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alfred_the_great.shtml
The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2011. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. [Online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/topic/Anglo-Saxon-Chronicle
Whitelock, D., 2018. Alfred. [Online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Alfred-king-of-Wessex
Yorke, B., 2018. Who was King Alfred the Great?. [Online] Available at: https://www.historyextra.com/period/anglo-saxon/king-alfred-great-facts-life-death-famous-buried/