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Old steel Houses, Botallack Mines, Cornwall, UK. Source: Ernest Davies/Adobe Stock

Who are the Mysterious Cornwall Knockers?

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Cornwall's tin mines, with their labyrinthine tunnels and subterranean chambers, have long been the backdrop to stories of supernatural beings known as the Knockers. These elusive spirits, central to Cornish folklore, played an integral role in the lives of the miners who toiled deep beneath the Earth's surface. The Knockers, with their distinctive sounds and mysterious behavior, became an inseparable part of the mining culture in Cornwall, shaping the beliefs and practices of those who sought fortune in the mineral-rich depths.

The Realm of the Knockers

According to Cornish folklore, the Knockers were small, thin-limbed entities with large, hooked noses, reminiscent of mythical dwarves or elves. These spirits were believed to inhabit the darkest, deepest parts of the mines, far from the reach of daylight and human activity. Their presence was both feared and revered, as they were thought to be guardians of the mines' secrets, capable of both aiding and hindering the miners.

Knockers were a gnome-like creature or similar to a brownie (right) from a tutelary spirit from English and Scottish folklore. (Public Domain), (Public Domain)

Knockers were a gnome-like creature or similar to a brownie (right) from a tutelary spirit from English and Scottish folklore. (Public Domain), (Public Domain)

The Knockers were not exclusive to the tin mines; they were also believed to haunt wells and other natural features. This suggests that the term "Knockers" was used more broadly to describe various supernatural creatures associated with the earth. Despite their eerie appearances and elusive nature, the Knockers were generally considered benevolent beings who kept to their own company, only revealing themselves to those they favored.

Sounds from the Darkness: The Knockers and Communication

The name "Knockers" derives from the sounds that these spirits were believed to make within the mines. Miners often heard unexplained knocking and tapping noises emanating from the walls and depths of the shafts. These sounds, amplified in the claustrophobic darkness, were interpreted as messages from the Knockers.

The coastline near Tintagel in North Cornwall.  (Geoff Pickering/Adobe Stock)

The coastline near Tintagel in North Cornwall.  (Geoff Pickering/Adobe Stock)

Miners believed that the Knockers' sounds served as warnings or guides. The loud, persistent knocking was thought to indicate the presence of a rich vein of ore, while softer, intermittent taps might signal impending danger, such as a potential cave-in. In this way, the Knockers were seen as protectors, guiding the miners towards safety and prosperity.

However, the Knockers were also known for their mischievous side. They would sometimes play pranks on miners, leading them astray or hiding their tools. This behavior reinforced the belief that the Knockers needed to be treated with respect and caution.

A Delicate Balance: Offerings and Maintaining Good Relations

To maintain good relations with the Knockers, miners would leave offerings of food, particularly pasties, in remote parts of the mines. These offerings were seen as acts of appeasement, ensuring the goodwill of the spirits. Failing to respect the Knockers or neglecting to leave offerings could result in bad luck, accidents, or other forms of retribution.

Whistling was considered an offence to the Knockers, as was intentionally spying on their activities or making the sign of the cross. Such actions were believed to anger the spirits, leading to strange tricks or dangerous situations. Maintaining a delicate balance of respect and reverence was crucial for the miners, who depended on the Knockers' favor for their safety and success.

Evolution of a Legend: The Knockers Through Time

The perception of the Knockers has evolved over time, influenced by various cultural and historical factors. Some theories suggest that the Knockers were the spirits of Jewish miners who worked in Cornwall during the 11th and 12th centuries. Others believe that they were the souls of those who could not gain access to heaven or hell, a common explanation for various types of fairies in Celtic mythology.

The legends of the Knockers travelled with Cornish miners during the California Gold Rush, where they became known as Tommy Knockers. This migration of folklore highlights the adaptability and resilience of these myths, which continued to thrive in new environments far from their Cornish origins. The term "Cousin Jack" emerged to describe Cornish miners who recommended their relatives for work, spreading both their skills and their beliefs across the globe.

Three men and one woman panning for gold during the California Gold Rush (Public Domain)

Three men and one woman panning for gold during the California Gold Rush (Public Domain)

In the New World, Tommy Knockers retained their role as guardians and helpers of miners. They were believed to save lives by warning of mine collapses and were considered an essential part of mining culture. Mine owners in California respected these beliefs, ensuring that Tommy Knockers were "on duty" before allowing miners to work. This integration of folklore into practical mining operations underscores the deep cultural significance of these legends.


The Knockers of Cornwall, with their mysterious presence and enigmatic behaviors, are a testament to the rich folklore that permeates the region's history. These spirits, born from the dark depths of the tin mines, have left an indelible mark on the cultural landscape of Cornwall and beyond. The stories of the Knockers remind us of the enduring power of folklore to connect us to the past, shaping our understanding of the world and our place within it.

Through their knocks and taps, the Knockers guided miners towards safety and prosperity, while their elusive nature and need for respect highlighted the delicate balance between humans and the supernatural. As these legends travelled and adapted to new environments, they continued to thrive, becoming an integral part of the mining heritage in places as far-flung as California.

In reflecting on the significance of the Knockers, we are reminded of the enduring relevance of these ancient stories. They offer a glimpse into the beliefs and practices of those who came before us, enriching our cultural heritage and providing a deeper understanding of the human experience. Whether seen as protectors, pranksters, or mysterious spirits, the Knockers remain a captivating and essential part of Cornish folklore.

Top image: Old steel Houses, Botallack Mines, Cornwall, UK. Source: Ernest Davies/Adobe Stock

By Richard Clements


James, R.M. 2019. The Folklore of Cornwall: The Oral Tradition of a Celtic Nation. Cornwall University Press.

Monaghan, P. 2004. Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Infobase Publishing.

MacKillop, J. 1998. Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford University Press.

Unknown. 2023. Cousin Jack: The Legacy of Cornish Miners and Tommyknockers in California. El Dorado County Historical Website.


Frequently Asked Questions

The Knockers are supernatural beings in Cornish folklore, believed to inhabit mines and underground spaces. They were thought to make knocking sounds to warn miners of danger or indicate the presence of valuable ore. These entities were both feared and respected for their mysterious and sometimes mischievous nature.

The Knockers in Cornish folklore functioned as supernatural beings believed to warn miners of danger and indicate the presence of valuable minerals with their knocks. They also played tricks and were seen as guardians of the mines' secrets, embodying both fear and respect in mining culture.

In the United States, particularly during the California Gold Rush and other mining booms, the term "Tommy Knockers" referred to similar supernatural beings or spirits believed to inhabit mines. Like their counterparts in Cornwall, Tommy Knockers were thought to warn miners of impending danger, such as cave-ins, by knocking on the walls of the mines. They were considered protective entities and were respected as part of mining folklore and culture in America.

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I am Richard Clements, a keen amateur historian and writer with a passion for uncovering the lesser-known histories and mysteries that inhabit the world around us. My writings often focus on individuals and locations to bring intriguing historical narratives and... Read More

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