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The origins of human beings according to ancient Sumerian texts

The origins of human beings according to ancient Sumerian texts

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Sumer, or the ‘land of civilized kings’, flourished in Mesopotamia, now modern-day Iraq, around 4500 BC. Sumerians created an advanced civilization with its own system of elaborate language and writing, architecture and arts, astronomy and mathematics. Their religious system was a complex one comprised of hundreds of gods. According to the ancient texts, each Sumerian city was guarded by its own god; and while humans and gods used to live together, the humans were servants to the gods.

The Sumerian creation myth can be found on a tablet in Nippur, an ancient Mesopotamian city founded in approximately 5000 BC.

The creation of Earth ( Enuma Elish ) according to the Sumerian tablets begins like this:

When in the height heaven was not named,
And the earth beneath did not yet bear a name,
And the primeval Apsu, who begat them,
And chaos, Tiamut, the mother of them both
Their waters were mingled together,
And no field was formed, no marsh was to be seen;
When of the gods none had been called into being,
And none bore a name, and no destinies were ordained;
Then were created the gods in the midst of heaven,
Lahmu and Lahamu were called into being...

Sumerian mythology claims that, in the beginning, human-like gods ruled over Earth. When they came to the Earth, there was much work to be done and these gods toiled the soil, digging to make it habitable and mining its minerals.

The texts mention that at some point the gods mutinied against their labour.

When the gods like men
Bore the work and suffered the toll
The toil of the gods was great,
The work was heavy, the distress was much.

Anu, the god of gods, agreed that their labour was too great. His son Enki, or Ea, proposed to create man to bear the labour, and so, with the help of his half-sister Ninki, he did. A god was put to death, and his body and blood was mixed with clay. From that material the first human being was created, in likeness to the gods.

You have slaughtered a god together
With his personality
I have removed your heavy work
I have imposed your toil on man.

In the clay, god and man
Shall be bound,
To a unity brought together;
So that to the end of days
The Flesh and the Soul
Which in a god have ripened –
That soul in a blood-kinship be bound.

This first man was created in Eden, a Sumerian word which means ‘flat terrain’. In the Epic of Gilgamesh , Eden is mentioned as the garden of the gods and is located somewhere in Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

Sumerian tablet depicting Enki in the creation myth. ( world-myth.com)

Initially human beings were unable to reproduce on their own, but were later modified with the help of Enki and Ninki. Thus, Adapa was created as a fully functional and independent human being. This ‘modification’ was done without the approval of Enki’s brother, Enlil, and a conflict between the gods began. Enlil became the adversary of man, and the Sumerian tablet mentions that men served gods and went through much hardship and suffering.

Adapa, with the help of Enki, ascended to Anu where he failed to answer a question about ‘the bread and water of life’. Opinions vary on the similarities between this creation story and the biblical story of Adam and Eve in Eden.

Top image: Sumerian chaos monster and sun god. ( Wikipedia)

Note: Ancient Sumerian translations were taken from William Bramley’s book, The Gods of Eden .

Comments

I've heard the story many times. First I've ever heard of a god slaughtered. (that is from the Bible) And you overlook the very obvious. The story is told by someone looking over it. Not living under it.

So. What does that mean?

The serpent raised mans knowledge and in turn they were banished from the garden of Eden so we can’t access the tree of life whereupon eating from the tree we could be indistinguishable from the gods

One huge flaw in your story, you say that this god (serpent) saved us from slavery in the garden to what just enslave us on the entirety of the planet instead? They too was banished to earth right? the devil was banished to earth & is the god of this earth... look around, this whole system is evil & corrupt. The most high or anu as you call him isn't the evil one here the one who corrupted us in the garden, fell to the earth and now rules on earth is the evil one, the devil himself.

That sounds alot like the story of Prometheus. But, man tries to make sense of the unknown and occasionally concludes similar answers, even independently of one another. But, I have read that Sumeria and Indus River civilization were culturally swapping for quite a while. Ancient Kings were held in high regard and were often regarded as Gods. So maybe, the Sumerians Kings concocted these stories to keep their subjects in line or well informed.

The featured image* shows -- among other things -- what must be one of the first wrist-watches in history. On the right arm of the sun god. It's a sundial.

*(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enki#mediaviewer/File:Chaos_Monster_and_Sun...)

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