Goujian: The Ancient Chinese Sword

Goujian: The Ancient Chinese Sword that Defied Time


Fifty years ago, a rare and unusual sword was found in a tomb in China. Despite being well over 2,000 years old, the sword, known as the Goujian, did not have a single trace of rust.  The blade drew blood when an archeologist tested his finger on its edge, seemingly unaffected by the passage of time.  Besides this strange quality, the craftsmanship was highly detailed for a sword made such a long time ago.  Regarded as a state treasure in China today, the sword is as legendary to the Chinese people as King Arthur's Excalibur in the West.

In 1965, archaeologists were carrying out a survey in Hubei province, just 7 km (4 miles) from the ruins of Jinan, capital of the ancient Chu state, when they discovered fifty ancient tombs. During the excavations of the tombs, researchers unearthed the sword of Goujian alongside 2,000 other artifacts. 

Discovery of the Goujian

According to the leader of the archeological team responsible for the excavation, it was discovered in a tomb, in a near air-tight wooden box next to a skeleton.  The team was stunned when the perfectly preserved bronze sword with scabbard was removed from the box.  When it was unsheathed, the blade was revealed to be untarnished despite being buried in damp conditions for two millennia.  A test conducted by the archaeologists showed that the blade could easily cut a stack of twenty pieces of paper.

Sword of Goujian, Hubei Provincial Museum

Sword of Goujian, Hubei Provincial Museum ( Wikimedia Commons )

Jian swords

The Sword of Goujian is one of the earliest known Jian swords, a double-edged straight sword used during the last 2,500 years in China. Jian swords are among the earliest sword types in China and are closely associated with Chinese mythology. In Chinese folklore, it is known as "The Gentleman of Weapons" and is considered one of the four major weapons, along with the staff, spear, and the sabre.

One iron and two bronze Jian swords from the Chinese Warring states period

One iron and two bronze Jian swords from the Chinese Warring states period ( Wikimedia Commons )

Relatively short compared to similar historical pieces, the Gouijan sword is a bronze sword with a high concentration of copper, making it more pliant and less likely to shatter.  The edges are made of tin, making them harder and capable of retaining a sharper edge.  There are also small amounts of iron, lead and sulfur in the sword, and research has revealed a high proportion of sulfur and sulfide cuprum, which gives the sword its rustproof quality.  Black rhombic etchings cover both sides of the blade and blue glaze and turquoise is imbedded on the sword handle.  The grip of the sword is bound by silk while the pommel is composed of 11 concentric circles.  The sword measures 55.7 cm long (21.9 in), including an 8.4 cm (3.3 in) handle hilt, and has a 4.6 cm (1.8 in) wide blade.  It weighs 875 grams (30.9) oz.

The turquoise can be seen embedded in the sword’s handle

The turquoise can be seen embedded in the sword s handle ( Wikimedia Commons )

Deciphering the inscription

On one side of the blade, two columns of text are visible with eight characters, near the hilt, that are in ancient Chinese script.  The script, known as "鸟虫文" (literally "'birds and worms' characters") is characterized by intricate decorations to the defining strokes, and is a variant of zhuan that is very difficult to read.  Initial analyses deciphered six of these eight characters.  They read, "越王" (King of Yue) and "自作用剑" ("made this sword for (his) personal use"). The remaining two characters are likely the name of the king. 

Deciphering the scripts on the Sword of Goujian

Deciphering the scripts on the Sword of Goujian ( Wikipedia)

From its birth in 510 BC to its demise at the hands of Chu in 334 BC, nine kings ruled Yue, including Goujian, Lu Cheng, Bu Shou, and Zhu Gou, among others.  The identity of the king that owned the sword sparked debate among archaeologists and Chinese language scholar.  After more than two months, the experts formed a consensus that the original owner of the sword was Goujian (496 – 465 BC), making the sword around 2,500 years old. 

King Goujian of Yue

King Goujian of Yue ( Wikimedia Commons )

Goujian was a famous emperor in Chinese history who reigned over the Yue State during the Spring and Autumn Period (771 - 476 BC).  This was a time marked by chaos within the Zhou Dynasty and takes its name from the Spring and Autumn Annals, which chronicled this period.  The Spring and Autumn Period was renowned for military expeditions; these conflicts led to the perfecting of weapons to the point that they were incredibly resistant and deadly, taking years to forge and lasting for centuries.  The story of Goujian and Fuchai, King of the Wu state, contending for hegemony is famous throughout China.  Although Goujian’s kingdom was initially defeated by the State of Wu, Goujian would lead his army to victory 10 years later. 

Unique properties

Besides its historic value, many scholars have wondered how this sword could have remained rust-free in a humid environment, for more than 2,000 years, and how the delicate decorations were carved into the sword.  The sword of Goujian is still as sharp today as when it was originally crafted, and not a single spot of rust can be found on the body today.

The Goujian sword is as sharp today as it was over two millennia ago

The Goujian sword is as sharp today as it was over two millennia ago ( Wikimedia Commons )

Researchers analyzed ancient bronze shards in the hope of finding a way to replicate the technology used to create the sword.  They found that the sword is resistant to oxidation as a result of sulphation on the surface of the sword. This, combined with an air-tight scabbard,  allowed the legendary sword to be found in such pristine condition.

Tests also show that the sword-smiths of the Wu and Yue regions in Southern China during the Spring and Autumn Period reached such a high level of metallurgy that they were able to incorporate rust-proof alloys into their blades, helping them survive the ages relatively unblemished. 

Sword Damaged

In 1994, the Sword of Goujian was loaned for display in Singapore. As a workman was removing the sword from its case at the conclusion of the exhibition, he knocked the weapon, causing a 7mm-long crack. The damage caused uproar in China and it was never allowed outside the country again. It is now kept at the Hubei Provincial Museum.

Top image: The Sword of Goujian. ( Llu Tao / Flickr )

By Bryan Hilliard


"Sword of Goujian."

"Sword of Swords: The Sword of Goujian." China Culture.

Andrei, Mihai. "The Sword of Goujian - Untarnished after 2700 Years." ZME Science. October 21, 2011.

Kalamidas, Thanos. "The Blade That Defeated Millennia." April 17, 2013.


Today we only consider the compounds of swords and judge them by the chemical/metallurgical values.

ancient swordmakers were not only smiths in a modern sense but had a highly profession. Not only because metall smithing was new (arguably not at this time anymore) but they had a religious air around them. their swords were not only pieces of metal (met - all) but magical items with an own soul, character and features.

Those smiths knew magic and most likely a more elaborate form of Alchemy (all-chemy) far beyond the stupid making of gold from lead (can be done today but costs more than the gold price would render).

Today we know that for example water can keep intention/energy/information (or what ever it is). that means there is jumping of border between the metaphysical world to the material world. We know that from japanese experiments but also from Prof. W. Bengstons experiments as well as Grads experiments.

Prof. Bengston reported that he 'charged' cotton with (well, what it is nobody knows) and then held it in his hand. When he moves the hand it hit him like a 2by4. He repeated the experiment with various people, all with the same result.

We also know that swords had runa on it, or short blessings. (some also say the blessings have effects on the food, like the old grannies at Tchernobyl blessed their food until there is no more radiation).

So a sword is much more as a piece of metal, it is a power object with its own life.

Bryan Hill's picture

Hi guys, I also recommend using adblock plus (with the easylist filter). It does a good job removing virtually all ads.


I am an engineer but i found myself very much interested in History

You're right -- Please give this a shot. It is free and works great. It will even block adds on Youtube. ..

Im hearing that mate. I don't get videos but the ads are so obtrusive sometime.depending on which device i use they can be shockingly located,sometime they even block the text by appearing directly in the middle of the article. It actually has reached the point where i only visit this site occasionally rather than daily.when i complained to A.O they asked me for a screen shot as well. Take our words for it A.O,the ads are truly abysmal.


Next article