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Burning scroll

Who Destroyed the Great Library of Alexandria?

The destruction of the great library of Alexandria has been lamented as one of the biggest losses of the ancient world. Nearly one million documents from across Assyria, Greece, Persia, Egypt, India...
Representative image of a cloaked druid in a forest.

Stories of the Druids Abound, But What is the Hard Archaeological Evidence?

Druid comes from the Old Irish word druí meaning sorcerer. And that is how most people today think of the druids, as mysterious wizards enveloped in the world of magic and ritual. But there is much...
Roman soldiers and their general (vukkostic / Adobe Stock)

The Roman Republic – Was It Truly A Republic?

The Roman Republic was the period in ancient Roman history that superseded the Roman Kingdom and preceded the Roman Empire. Traditionally, the founding of the Roman Republic is dated to 509 BC, when...
Statue of a ram that was discovered next to the vaults at the front of the temple platform in Caesarea. The town was founded by Herod the Great, king of Judea under the Roman Empire

What New Archaeological Treasures Have Been Unearthed in the Ancient City of Caesarea?

This week, Caesarea National Park came a step closer to its goal of rivaling Jerusalem as the top tourist destination in Israel. After a $27.5 million investment plan from the Edmond de Rothschild...
A diver explores the Baiae Underwater Archaeological Site

Hedonistic ‘Sunken City of the Caesars’ Recaptured By Divers After 1,700 Years

The sunken city of the Caesars that was lost for over seventeen centuries under the blue waters of Italy's west coast, has been uncovered in impressive new pictures taken by divers who were permitted...
Caesar's first invasion of Britain: Caesar's boat is pulled to the shore while his soldiers fight the resisting indigenous warriors. Lithograph by W. Linnell after E. Armitage.

First Hard Evidence for Julius Caesar's Invasion of Britain Discovered

The first evidence for Julius Caesar's invasion of Britain has been discovered by archaeologists from the University of Leicester. Based on new evidence, the team suggests that the first landing of...
Statue of Roman Soldier (Public Domain), and recreators of Roman legionaries wearing the lorica segmentata, 1st-3rd century

Rome’s Forgotten General: Upstart Poor Boy Becomes Military Conqueror – Part I

In the spring of 40 BCE, the Parthians, led by Quintus Labienus, a Roman general who was supported the Liberators (consisting of Brutus and Cassius, who participated in the assassination of Caesar),...
Julius Caesar by Peter Paul Rubens.

“Veni, Vidi, Scripsi”: The Literary Conquests of Gaius Julius Caesar

A man who needs no introduction, Gaius Julius Caesar is more than well known for the stories he spearheads—namely, his numerous military victories. (Although, even his defeats somehow sound rather...
Some of the lead sling bullets from Burnswark that the ancient Romans used against the people of Scotland; some of the bullets had holes cut into them to cause a terrifying noise.

Ancient Scots Hit By Roman Slingshots With the Force of a .44 Magnum

Researchers have found 400-some lead slingshot balls at the site of a Roman siege in ancient Scotland and say the balls would have struck the natives with nearly the force of a .44 Magnum handgun—one...
The Pyramid of Cestius overlooks the Protestant Cemetery of Rome

The Pyramid of Cestius: Why Would a Roman Nobleman Construct a Pyramid Tomb?

In the heart of ancient Rome, near the Porta San Paolo, the last echo of a Roman fascination with the power of Egypt is located. The pyramid was built during the reign of Augustus, the adopted son of...
The so-called “Brutus” Marble.

Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger: Ultimate Betrayer or a Hero of the Roman Empire?

Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger, commonly referred to as just ‘Brutus’, was a politician who lived towards the end of the Roman Republic. Brutus is best known for being one of the main conspirators...
A Star in the Imperial Shadows, and Dutiful Son of a Roman Emperor: Castor, or Drusus the Younger

A Star in the Imperial Shadows, and Dutiful Son of a Roman Emperor: Castor, or Drusus the Younger

The people of ancient Rome knew of a tragic hero Drusus (Drusus the Elder), the younger brother of Tiberius who died in a campaign. But there was another, younger and lesser known, Drusus in Tiberius...
Cleopatra and Caesar (1866). Painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme.

The Wisdom of Cleopatra, the Intellectual Queen Who Could Outsmart Them All

Cleopatra VII is not only a famous person in history, she is also the icon of a rich and powerful culture. She was usually depicted as a lover of great men, but the truth was different. More...
How the Light of the Wives of Julius Caesar Was Dimmed by an Egyptian Lover

How the Light of the Wives of Julius Caesar Was Dimmed by an Egyptian Lover

Julius Caesar was married three times. He also had plenty of romances, including a famous one with the last queen of Egypt, Cleopatra VII. Caesar was born on July 13, 100 or 102 BC. During his...
What if Cleopatra and Octavian Had Been Friends?

What if Cleopatra and Octavian Had Been Friends?

Cleopatra and Octavian are one of the most famous sets of enemies in history. The lover and the adopted son of Gaius Julius Caesar both created monumental chapters in the history of ancient Egypt and...
Fortifications at Monterreal Castle.

Ancient Gondomar Castle and its Historic Connections to Caesar, Columbus, and Drake

Near the Atlantic Ocean, on a small peninsula there is a castle known as Monterreal Castle, Gondomar Castle, or Ox Hill Fortress. Although it has been destroyed many times over the years, it remains...

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