All

Wow! You really went above and beyond – nice work! It’s great to see results of experimentation. Thanks very much Colin.

Have just done a quickie experiment to ascertain how different the TS face might look if it had been obtained by contact-imprinting, resulting in some lateral expansion (see earlier). It's a crude experiment, admittedly, but a photo of the as-is TS image on plain paper was stuck to the side of a wine bottle so as to cover about a third of the circumference, then re-photographed.

https://shroudofturinwithoutallthehype.files.wordpress.com/2016/01/befor...

That's the regular image (left) from Shroud Scope on the left versus the ssumption-laden curvature-adjusted image (right).

So which is the correct one - the fuller face, or the leaner sallow look? I leave it to readers to judge.

PS: For the sake of completeness, I ought perhaps to say there's another means available, at least in principle, to imprint off a 3D template with minimal 2D image distortion, at least one without 'sticky-out' bits (like that problematical nose we all come equipped with).

What one does is to invert the geometry. Instead of laying the subject down and spreading linen on top, one spreads the linen over some kind of underlay with plenty of 'give' (but not too much) and presses the template DOWN into the linen.

Now you might think that would cause too much wrap-around effect, giving rise to the dreaded lateral distortion. But if you take, say, a Cola bottle as your model template, and press it down sideways into linen spread over several layers of woollen jerseys, you may get a surprise. Such is the resistance of wool to being compressed that one can only "bury" about a third of the bottle's circumference, such that any attempt to capture raised relief (like one has on a coke bottle) results in a partial imprinting only.

Now here's the interesting part: recalling school maths, with circumference = 2pi times r, an imprint from just 1/3rd (approx) of a circumference when opened out and laid flat has a width that is the full diameter of the bottle! So the imprint looks like one that is the full- width of bottle when in fact it's captured just a third of the relief. In the case of the human face, admittedly not perfectly cylindrical, the result is a passable imitation of the face with "correct" width, but the eyes a bit further apart than they should be (easily overlooked) but - the giveaway) - severe image cutoffs at both sides of the face, approx at cheekbone level, with no prospect of imprinting the ears.

Ring any bells? Yup, that's precisely what one sees with the TS face - sharp cut-offs left and right to give a mask-like appearance, with missing ears! So that mean ol' wrap-around effect can actually be made to work to one's advantage - whether TS modeller Mark 1 (mid 14th century) or internet-modeller Mk2 (early 21st century).

There's a caveat if adopting the above routine, ie. inverted press-down imprinting, with a real human face. One needs to choose someone with a snub-nose. If the nose is too pointy, one's imprint is likely to have some tell-tale creases radiating diuagonally-downwards from the tip of the nose. The linen gets rucked, and it happens 'out-of-sight'.

That's why I went for the original "face-up" mode of imprinting, but using the imprinting medium (flour sprinkled onto an oil-coated face) to keep the imprinting restricted to the highest relief only (i.e. by carefully wiping the medium off the extremities of the face where the frontal plane curves round to each side i.e.receding plane, which is where one wants the imprinting to stop). The linen can be stretched in upright mode around and beneath the chin, avoiding those diagonal creases, but introducing a new one - approx horizontal at chin level, maybe with a kink in the middle. Again, ring any bells?

Can't get round the distortion problem with a real human face you say?

That's what Itoo thought for the best part of 4 years, Allen, tending to believe Luigi Garlaschelli when he said a shallow bas relief would have needed to be used for the face. But then I got to wondering if it might be possible to imprint off a human face as if it were a bas relief, i.e. capturing the highest relief only.

Some recent experimentation has given some promising answers. One selects an imprinting medium to smear over one's face that is then 'tidied up' so to speak, i.e. wiping it off all the places you DONT want imprinted, like the sides of the face. You then press your coated face into taut outstretched linen, so as to capture the facial equivalent of a shallow footprint in the sand, a pseudo bas relief so to speak. Hey presto you have your distortion-free imprint, it not mattering whether the linen wrapped around the side of your face, provided there was no medium there to imprint.

Where there's a will, to say nothing of big reward for a successsful medieval-era outcome, there's a way.

See this, my latest posting, for practical details, using oil/dry white flour imprinting onto wet linen, followed by oven-roasting to model the TS.

https://shroudofturinwithoutallthehype.wordpress.com/2016/01/25/modellin...

As should be clear from my earlier comments. You can't get past the distortion problem.
Appreciate the terms, thanks!
“lateral distortion”
“wrap-around effect”.