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architecture

Plastico di Roma imperiale at the Museum of the Roman Civilization. Source: Jean-Pierre Dalbéra / CC BY-SA 2.0.

The Plastico di Roma Imperiale Wasn’t Built in a Day: Accurate Mini Rome Model Took 35 Years

The Roman Empire dominated most of Europe and parts of Africa and the Middle East for over thousand years, evolving from a monarchy to a democracy and finally a militaristic dictatorship. The empire...
The Norte Chico Civilization: Ancient Peruvian Civilization or Complex Society?

Norte Chico: The First Civilization in the Americas?

The Norte Chico Civilization was an ancient civilization/complex society belonging to the Pre-Columbian era. This civilization flourished in Peru about 5000 years ago, and is believed to be the...
Gargoyles on the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris overlooking Paris, France. Source: scaliger / Adobe Stock.

The Grotesque World of Gargoyles

Gargoyles are an architectural feature that have existed for thousands of years. Initially designed to filter rainwater away from the edge of a building, they also have an arcane purpose – to ward...
Temple of Edfu illustration by artist David Roberts.

The Grand Architect: The Sacred Link Between Architecture and the Divine Across Ancient Cultures

In 1892, architect W.R. Lethaby wrote: “The main purpose and burden of sacred architecture - and all architecture, temple, tomb, or palace, was sacred in the early days - is…inextricably bound up...
Notre Dame de Paris, a taller reconstruction of the original spire was made in the 1800s.

Notre Dame de Paris: Survivor of 850 Years of Upheaval, Revolution, World Wars and Fire

Notre Dame de Paris (which translates as ‘Our Lady of Paris’) is one of the best-known Gothic cathedrals in the world and among the most famous landmarks in France . The monument caught the attention...
St. Basil's Cathedral on Red Square, Moscow, Russia.

The Iconic Saint Basil's Cathedral – So Magnificent the Architects Were Blinded

Saint Basil’s Cathedral is a church located on Moscow’s Red Square and is one of Russia’s most recognizable landmarks. The building of the church was commissioned by Tsar Ivan the Terrible during the...
Stone of the Pregnant Woman, an example of ancient high-tech stonework in Hajar al Hibla at Baalbek in Lebanon.

The High-Tech Stonework of the Ancients: Unsolved Mysteries of Master Engineers

There are many stone artifacts from the ancient world made from the hardest stone on the planet such as granite and diorite, which have been cut and shaped with such quality, precision and accuracy...
Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests, Temple of Heaven, Beijing

Temple of Heaven and Its Sacrificial Altar Where Blood Was Spilt for Bountiful Harvests

The Temple of Heaven in Beijing dates back almost 600 years, to a time when Chinese emperors sacrificed animals to the gods on the temple’s altars to atone and beseech them to bestow bountiful...
The Hagia Sophia, an iconic work of architecture that housed many iconic works of art.

How Byzantine Art and Architecture Captivated the Known World

The rich, beautiful art and opulent architecture of the Byzantine Empire glorified Jesus, the saints, the Blessed Virgin Mary and the emperors. Byzantine art motifs, the mosaics, paintings, and...
The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus

The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus: A Wonder of the Ancient World

The word mausoleum is nowadays defined as “a special building made to hold the dead body of an important person or the deceased bodies of a family”. This word is derived from the name Mausolus, for...
How were the pyramids built? The discovery of a quarry ramp may finally provide a consensus on this debate.

Archaeologists Say They’ve Solved Mystery of How Pyramids were Built After Unearthing 4,500-Year-Old Ramp

Has the riddle of how the ancient Egyptians built the pyramids finally been solved? A multi-national team of experts say yes, after they unearthed an ancient ramp, which they say was used to haul...
Fallen Roof Ruin, Road Canyon, Utah. This is just one of the many architectural features left by ancient cultures in Utah.

10,000 Years of Landscape Architecture by the Ancient Cultures of Utah

Utah is the only state in North America where a majority of the population belong to a single church; approximately 62% of the state population being members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-...
The grand pyramid of the Maya at Uxmal

The Spectacular Ancient Maya City of Uxmal

The ancient Maya city of Uxmal is located in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. It was one of the regional capitals during the Maya Late Classical period and is considered today to be one of the most...
Ellora, cave 16, Kailasa Temple.

Kailasa Temple Was Carved Out of One Rock from the Top Down!

The Kailasa Temple is number 16 out of 32 cave temples and monasteries collectively known as the Ellora Caves in Maharashtra, India. However, it is considered to be one of the greatest and most...
Detail of a bronze statue presenting Shiva as the Lord of Dance. Nataraja from Tamil Nadu, India. Chola Dynasty.

The Chola Dynasty: Exploring the Achievements of an Indian Empire Spanning 400 Years

The Chola Dynasty was a dynasty that ruled over the southern part of India for about 400 years. Although there were some up’s and down’s, including a time when Chola princesses were the only ones...
Scene from the Rāmāyaṇa, northwest India, Gupta period, 5th-6th century, terracotta, Honolulu Academy of Arts.

Gupta Empire of Ancient India Was Golden Age of Goodwill, Artistic Endeavors and Military Might

The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire that existed between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD. During this time India advanced, especially culturally. Achievements in architecture, sculpture, and...

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