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Acharya Kanad

The Indian Sage who developed Atomic Theory 2,600 years ago

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John Dalton (1766 – 1844), an English chemist and physicist, is the man credited today with the development of atomic theory.  However, a theory of atoms was actually formulated2,500 years before Dalton by an Indian sage and philosopher, known as Acharya Kanad.

Acharya Kanad was born in 600 BC in Prabhas Kshetra (near Dwaraka) in Gujarat, India. His real name was Kashyap.

Kashyap was on a pilgrimage to Prayag when he saw thousands of pilgrims litter the streets with flowers and rice grains, which they offered at the temple. Kashyap, fascinated by small particles, began collecting the grains of rice. A crowd gathered around to see the strange man collecting grains from the street. Kashyap was asked why he was collecting the grains that even a beggar wouldn’t touch. He told them that individual grains in themselves may seem worthless, but a collection of some hundred grains make up a person's meal, the collection many meals would feed an entire family and ultimately the entire mankind was made of many families, thus even a single grain of rice was as important as all the valuable riches in this world. Since then, people began calling him ‘Kanad’, as ‘Kan’ in Sanskrit means ‘the smallest particle’. 

Kanad pursued his fascination with the unseen world and with conceptualising the idea of the smallest particle. He began writing down his ideas and teaching them to others.  Thus, people began calling him ‘Acharya’ (‘the teacher’), hence the name Acharya Kanad (‘the teacher of small particles’)

Kanad’s conception of Anu (the atom)

Kanad was walking with food in his hand, breaking it into small pieces when he realised that he was unable to divide the food into any further parts, it was too small. From this moment, Kanad conceptualised the idea of a particle that could not be divided any further. He called that indivisible matter Parmanu, or anu (atom).

Acharya Kanad proposed that this indivisible matter could not be sensed through any human organ or seen by the naked eye, and that an inherent urge made one Parmanu combine with another.  When two Parmanu belonging to one class of substance combined, a dwinuka (binary molecule) was the result. This dwinuka had properties similar to the two parent Parmanu.

Kanad suggested that it was the different combinations of Parmanu which produced different types of substances. He also put forward the idea that atoms could be combined in various ways to produce chemical changes in presence of other factors such as heat. He gave blackening of earthen pot and ripening of fruit as examples of this phenomenon.

Acharya Kanad founded the Vaisheshika school of philosophy where he taught his ideas about the atom and the nature of the universe. He wrote a book on his research “Vaisheshik Darshan” and became known as “The Father of Atomic theory.”

In the West, atomism emerged in the 5th century BC with the ancient Greeks Leucippus and Democritus. Whether Indian culture influenced Greek or vice versa or whether both evolved independently is a matter of dispute.

Kanad is reporting to have said: ”Every object of creation is made of atoms which in turn connect with each other to form molecules.”  His theory of the atom was abstract and enmeshed in philosophy as they were based on logic and not on personal experience or experimentation. But in the words of A.L. Basham, the veteran Australian Indologist, "they were brilliant imaginative explanations of the physical structure of the world, and in a large measure, agreed with the discoveries of modern physics."

By April Holloway

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There was never any Aryan invasion into India. There is overwhelming evidence that the Aryan Invasion Theory (AIT) was concocted. You should refer to published materials by Dr David Frawley and Stephen Knapp, among many other scholars. Also, I wrote a book, "India: Wisdom and Achievements" in which I have enumerated and discussed the evidence to prove the elaborate concoction of the AIT by Europeans, in particular the British, who employed the German scholar who invented the AIT out of thin air. He decided on the year 1500 BC as he said, according to the Bible, the world was created in 4004 BC and that Noah's flood was in the year 2500 BC. Therefore, the invasion would have been around 1500 BC before the period when Buddha was around (approx. 6 century BC). He subsequently relented some 20 years before his death when criticised by other scholars.
The suggestion that Dravidians were the people who were involved in the ancient Indian civilisation at Harapa and Mohenjo Daro is incorrect. The people you claim to be the "Aryan invaders" from the West were always indigenous to India, and archaeological evidence have been unearthed from the 1920s to prove this. In addition, there is also a great deal of other evidence as explained in my book. In particular, mention is made about the Sarswati River in ancient Indian texts which were composed over 5,000 years ago that this river was a very powerful river, along the banks of which there were many towns and human settlements. This river ceased to exist since around 1900 BC, before the year 1500 BC when Max Mueller claimed that there was the "Aryan invasion". Recent pictures from space are now available to show the route of this river, and archaeological excavations have been carried out to map the location sites of the towns and cities along the banks of the river. An important point to note is that the name of this river could not have been mentioned in several places in the ancient Indian texts, which were wrongly claimed to have been composed by the nomadic intruders after their purported arrival in the year 1500 BC or later. I rest my case. Dr Nat Khublall

Hear, hear!

just a quick point -a comment is usually something like "wow,i really like your new car." what you've just wrote has more bloody words than a stephen king novel.. here's a tip-if you really want people to read what you have to offer then maybe you need to simplify and condense your material.

The Aryan invasion theory has been a basis and justification of Western interpretation upon the civilization and history of India. Although many Indologists within India have been influenced by such thought, the theory has not met majority acceptance within India and is even coming under attack in the West. David Frawley, one Sanskrit scholar recognized both inside as well as outside of India has assessed the current situation of the Aryan invasion theory thusly:

“ One of the main ideas used to interpret – and generally devalue – the ancient history of India is the theory of the Aryan invasion. According to this account, India was invaded and conquered by nomadic light-skinned Indo-European tribes from Central Asia around 1500-100 BC, who overthrew an earlier and more advanced dark-skinned Dravidian civilization from which they took most of what later became Hindu culture … This idea- totally foreign to the history of India, whether North or South, has become an almost unquestioned truth in the interpretation of ancient history today. Today, after nearly all the reasons for its supposed validity have been refuted, even major Western scholars are at last beginning to call it into question.” ( David Frawley, “ The Myth of the Aryan Invasion” )

One main reason that the theory has been called into question is that there is no primary evidence. No monuments to any heros of such invasions have been excavated, no related cemeteries unearthed, no battle fields identified in relation to the theory, no forts, in short- nothing in the way of physical evidence. There is a host of other incongruencies, but this is the general idea.

One major platform that Western scholars have relied upon to substantiate the theory is etymology. They trace linguistic patterns, encompassing East and West, and then by implication pinpoint a central geographic area which then serves as a common point of origin of the Indo-European language and race. This point, being basically the Caucasians and mountainous regions of Persia, is of course, outside of India, such that the existence of the Aryan race in Northern India is attributed to an invasion, and such is the explanation they offer for the Caucasian presence in India.

It has often been pointed out that few other principal theories have ever been accepted based on such indirect, flimsy evidence. When something ends up being so rigidly imposed with such little basis, a reasonable mind will look for other motives. Again we may rely on the broad understanding of David Frawley. ” It is important to examine the social and political implications of the Aryan invasion idea:

First, it served to divide India into a northern Aryan and southern Dravidian culture which were made hostile to each other. This kept the Hindus divided and is still a source of social tension.

Second, it gave the British an excuse in their conquest of India. They could claim to be doing only what the Aryan ancestors of the Hindus had previously done millennia ago.

Third, it served to make Vedic culture later than and possibly derived from Middle Eastern cultures. With the proximity and relationship of the latter with the Bible and Christianity, this kept the Hindu religion as a sidelight to the development of religion and civilization to the West.

Fourth, it allowed the sciences of India to be given a Greek basis, as any Vedic basis was largely disqualified by the primitive nature of the Vedic culture.

This discredited not only the ‘Vedas’ but the genealogies of the ‘Puranas’ and their long list of the kings before the Buddha or Krishna were left without any historical basis. The Mahabharata, instead of a civil war in which all the main kings of India participated as it is described, became a local skirmish among petty princes that was later exaggerated by poets. In short, it discredited the most of the Hindu tradition and almost all its ancient literature. It turned its scriptures and sages into fantasies and exaggerations.

This served a social, political and economical purpose of domination, proving the superiority of Western culture and religion. It made the Hindus feel that their culture was not the great thing that their sages and ancestors had said it was. It made Hindus feel ashamed of their culture – that its basis was neither historical nor scientific. It made them feel that the main line of civilization was developed first in the Middle East and then in Europe and that the culture of India was peripheral and secondary to the real development of world culture.

Such a view is not good scholarship or archeology but merely cultural imperialism. The Western Vedic scholars did in the intellectual sphere what the British army did in the political realm – discredit, divide and conquer the Hindus.

In short, the compelling reasons for the Aryan invasion theory were neither literary nor archeological but political and religious – that is to say, not scholarship but prejudice. Such prejudice may not have been intentional but deep-seated political and religious views easily cloud and blur our thinking.”

What impact does the Hollow Earth understanding have on this issue? The impact that it has may be found in one of the best places to hide anything- right under our noses, in the Puranas themselves! The Puranas tell us that at the end of the Kali Yuga, Vedic culture becomes regenerated from the interior of the Earth, after the Kalki Avatar brings the Kali Yuga to a close. This is not the only reference to the hollow earth in the Puranas, but it is the one which indicates the origin of the Aryans ( Caucasian race ) on the surface of the Earth.

The Caucasian race can easily be seen to stretch from Northern India to Scandanavia and to European Russia. How far would it be from the Artic coast of the Siberian and European side of the polar basin to the opening suggested by several hollow Earth researchers, which is offset from the North Pole just above the New Siberian Islands? ( See the oval on the map in Chapter Seven ) A hop, skip and a jump- no more than a few hundred miles. So how difficult would it be for the Caucasian and, of course, other human races to re-introduce themselves to the surface of the planet from this particular opening at the end of every Kali Yuga? It does not seem that it would be so difficult at all.

In addition, the fact that the Caucasian race is so light skinned in Northern Europe is indicative of a top-down migration. This is because in the Middle East and India, the race has a light tan complexion. It is easier to go from a light complexion to a darker complexion, while is is harder to believe that darker skinned Caucasians migrated Northwards, then became sun bleached to their present blond haired, blue eyed state- the genes which generate fair complexions and blue eyes are passive. Therefore, we can surmise that the Caucasians are not Caucasian in origin but rather, that their surface migration began in Northern Europe, along the Artic basin, from the Polar opening to the hollow Earth.

The reader may keep in mind that in millennia past, these areas were not as cold as they are now. As an example, we’ll note that Viking graves from 1,000 years ago have been opened up in Greenland, and it was found that roots, at that time, had penetrated the coffins. Now the graves lie under permafrost. This means that, previously, vegetation existed in the area and that there was a different climate.

In addition to the large, polar openings there are said to be tunnels which connect the surface of the planet with the hollow portion. Nicholas Roerich, for example, in his book “ Shamballa,” wrote of his travels through Tibet in the 1920s, through the Karakorum Pass in the Altai Mountains. He was shown caves closed up by boulders, and he wrote of passing over what seemed to be hollow areas by the echos from the horses’ hooves, and wrote of a current recollection of the hollow Earth in the collective minds of the Tibetan people.

Therefore, any cyclical reappearance of Vedic civilization and the Caucasian race could manifest from at least two points which span the length of the Aryan presence on our Earth, from top to bottom. The Caucasian presence in Northern Europe could be explained by migration from the polar opening, situated above the New Siberian Islands in the Arctic basin, while openings and tunnels in the Tibetan region could account for Caucasian presence also, even down as far as the Indian subcontinent.

No Caucasian migration into India is necessarily indicative of an introduction of Vedic culture. Aryan insertion into any given area, India included, could have simply reinforced already existent Vedic culture without having been an introduction. It is not a matter, really, of accounting for the Aryan presence in the Indian subcontinent. Rather, it is a matter of accounting for human presence on the surface of the planet after the end of every chatur yuga, and the Hollow Earth Theory explains this admirably well in conjuction with the appearance of the Kalki Avatar and regeneration of the surface population from Shambhalla and the hollow earth.

The hollow Earth theory certainly strengthens the Puranic account of a cyclical, re-population of the surface of our planet from the madhyatah, the hollow portion, including its chief city Shambhalla, and suggests that what is past will one day be prologue.

In this way, the hollow Earth theory offers an intriguing alternative to previous interpretations of the Caucasian presence in India, otherwise known as the Aryan Invasion Theory.

Imhotep pre dated Hippocrates....

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