Illustration from "Mundus subterraneus" - suggesting that fossil bones were from giants

The Establishment Has Already Acknowledged a Lost Race of Giants - Part 2

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Following our overview of discoveries of gigantic humanoid skeletons in the burial mounds and associated graveyards of the Adena-Hopewell, Archaic Cultures, and Southeastern Ceremonial Complex, we will now document the discovery of the Unique Physical Types (UPT) even after the institution of the mainstream policy of denial, or “post cover-up”.

The two pre-eminent Adena scholars of the twentieth century were William S Webb (assisted by Charles Snow of the University of Kentucky) and Don Dragoo, of the Carnegie Museum. When Webb excavated the Dover Mound in Mason Co, Kentucky, he encountered a group burial of 4 skeletons, one of which represented the Unique Physical Type:

“The remains of burial 40 is one of the largest known to Adena; the skull-foot field measurement is 84 inches (7 feet).” (The Dover Mound, William S Webb and Charles Snow 1959)

The Burial Census Table mentions that this skeleton had a “very thick” skull and represented the “tallest Adena male” from the mound.  For other burials in the Dover Mound the Table includes such details as “prominent bilateral chin”, “rugged head and face, wide bilateral chin” and “High Vaulted, large-faced”. (Webb and Snow, 1959)

The Dover Mound also yielded skeletons with dental abnormalities. Burial 54 included “a supernumerary tooth with twin cusps, lying diagonally in the left maxilla”, as well as “shovel shaped later incisors.” (Webb and Snow, 1959)

Recently recorded instances of Adena supernumerary teeth occur at McMurrey Mound 1 and Sidner Mound 1 in Ohio. (Mortuary Variability in the Middle Big Darby Drainage of Central Ohio Between 300 BC and 300 AD Volume 1, Bruce Aument). One particularly monstrous deformation analyzed and photographed in the Ohio Archaeologist may be an extreme case of the type of dental anomalies found in the Dover Mound. (Ohio Archaeologist, 10(4), Oct 1960.)

Webb and Snow also noted the large crania of the Adena, which they partly attributed to head-boarding:

“Not only do the Dover people show the results of head shaping (deformation), but they exceed the total Kentucky series in the great width and height of the skull vault!...it is to be noted that the head shaping…has been extreme in these skulls…These people as a group…have the highest skull vaults reported anywhere in the world.” (Webb and Snow, 1959)

Artist’s reconstruction of the high skull vaults reported in descriptions of North American giants.

Artist’s reconstruction of the high skull vaults reported in descriptions of North American giants. Image courtesy of Marcia K. Moore, Ciamar Studio.

Another feature of the UPTs documented by Webb and Snow is the massive lower jaw:

“One of the outstanding and un-Indian traits present among the Adena people is their prominent and often bilateral chins…One of the skulls from the Dover Mound, Burial 25…represents a bilateral chin with a width of 52 mm.” (Webb and Snow, 1959)

“One of the particular features present in at least one-half of the observed examples is the great width of the bony chin, formed by bilateral eminences rarely found among the skulls of the much earlier Shell Heap People or among the later Hopewell People.” (The Adena People, No 2, by Webb and Baby).

Besides the large skeletal type, Snow noted the discovery of the “Dwarf” type mentioned in early literature in his observations of the famous Adena pipe from Ross County, Ohio:

“Further evidence of abnormal Adena individuals is portrayed in a remarkable piece of sculpture in the round-the Adena Pipe figurine…The figure depicted is typical of this form of dwarfism.” (The Adena People, No 2, by Webb and Baby.)

The Adena Pipe. His head and torso are large in comparison to his legs, suggesting to some that he represents a dwarf.

The Adena Pipe. His head and torso are large in comparison to his legs, suggesting to some that he represents a dwarf. (Photo courtesy of the Ohio Historical Society)

The text references the excavation of one of these individuals at Waverly, Ohio. The following description of this burial is from Gerald Fowke:

“…a skeleton of peculiar form. It was not over five feet long, but the bones were very thick and the processes for attachment of muscles were extraordinary in their development. The skull was nearly half an inch thick and of unusual size, mostly back of the ears, though the forehead was full and high. The teeth were large, hard, and but little worn”. (The Archaeological History of Ohio, by Gerald Fowke, page 372.)

In 1958, Don Dragoo encountered the large Adena type while excavating the Cresap Mound in West Virginia on behalf of the Carnegie Museum.  In a subfloor tomb he unearthed Burial 54:

“This individual was of large proportions. When measured in the tomb his length was approximately 7.04 feet. All the long bones were heavy and possessed marked eminences for the attachment of muscles.” (Mounds for the Dead, by Don Dragoo, 1963).

A burial mound of the Adena Culture. Grave Creek Mound in Moundsville, West Virginia

A burial mound of the Adena Culture. Grave Creek Mound in Moundsville, West Virginia (Wikimedia Commons)

This discovery, as well as a review of Webb’s earlier work at the Dover Mound, influenced Dragoo’s remarkable observations on Adena anthropology:

“Two outstanding traits have been noted repeatedly for this group. One is the protruding and massive chin often with prominent bilateral protrusions. The second trait is the large size of many of the males and some of the females. A male of six feet was common and some individuals approaching seven feet in height have been found, for example, Burial 40 in the Dover Mound and Burial 54 in the Cresap Mound. Some of the females in the Dover Mound also were more than six feet in height. Not only were these Adena people tall but also the massiveness of the bones indicates powerfully built individuals. The head was generally big with a large cranial capacity”. (Mounds for the Dead, by Don Dragoo, 1963).

To Webb, Snow, and Dragoo, the evidence clearly pointed towards the existence of a group of genetically related elites within the Adena sphere who shared the UPT traits. The true number of these individuals had been obfuscated by the common practice of cremation:

“If, as the evidence seems to indicate, the burials in the tombs were those of a selected group such factors would have undoubtedly been of importance not only in the development of the prominent chin but also in the large stature. If only certain inbreeding individuals of the total population were members of the ‘selected group’, genetic factors would also have played an important part in the establishment of the unique Adena physical type…How wide-spread throughout the entire Adena population were the unique traits of the tomb burials is unknown but Snow’s study of the cremated remains from the Dover Mound indicated that at least some of the individuals among these cremated remains also possessed the unique traits of the flesh burials in the tombs. Because of the common practice of cremating most of the dead, we will probably never be able to determine the full extent of these special traits in the general population.” (Mounds for the Dead, by Don Dragoo, 1963).

The emerging picture is of an elite race within Late Archaic/Early Woodland societies who were often buried in the mounds, and who represented a type of “royalty”. Among these interrelated groups were UPTs. This elitism is further evidenced by the presence of extensive child and infant burials in the tombs, often accompanied by the same exotic goods as the adults including shell beads and copper rings.  Also, dental and bone anomalies have been used to establish a genetic connection between individuals at mound sites.

Gigantic discoveries are often challenged with the generic statement that average Adena were between 5’6’’ and 5’11’’ feet tall, but this argument is a conjecture of half-truth disguised as science. We are not concerned with the “average” stature of the Adena populace, but rather the irregular characteristics (and often abnormally tall stature) of their elite.

Skeletons of a male giant and a female dwarf, displayed at the Royal College of Surgeons.

Skeletons of a male giant and a female dwarf, displayed at the Royal College of Surgeons. (Wikimedia Commons)

Besides the professional literature, so-called “amateur” archaeologists have also chronicled conclusive evidence of Unique Physical Types with a great consistency to the discoveries of Dragoo and Webb. In 1908, Louis Welles Murray recorded that at Tioga Point in Pennsylvania, remains of “a skeleton of a man six or more feet in height” beneath a cist-like grave were found. The grave itself was encased and moved to the local museum where the bones were studied by hundreds of people. Other skeletons from this same area “were of unusual size; one, judged from the length of thigh bone, to be seven feet.” (A History of Old Tioga Point and Early Athens, Pennsylvania, by Louis Welles Murray.)

In addition to these, Murray documents the examination of a large skeleton by a Professor Holbrooke:

“Judging by the thigh bone he must have been seven feet tall. The skull was much larger than usual, very thick, the forehead unusually receding, the top flattened. The jaws were extremely strong, full of large, perfect teeth.” (A History of Old Tioga Point and Early Athens, Pennsylvania, by Louis Welles Murray.)

Following the discovery of burials in her own flower garden, Murray embarked on an archaeological odyssey of her own. In 1921, she published an article for the American Anthropologist, noting that the femur, jaw, and teeth of one of the seven-foot skeletons was then still in the Tioga Point Museum. Also included are references to many skeletons between 6 and 7 feet tall, with photographs of artifacts, pottery, and the in situ burial of one of the “above 6ft” burials. The article also features a photograph of the “Paul Scott Collection”, described as “a multiplicity of small artifacts, suggesting a race of pygmies” which included a “miniature amulet and sinker stones.” (Aboriginal Sites In And Near “Teaoga”, in American Anthropologist 23(2) 1921).

Regardless of the disparagement of amateurs, historians, and antiquarians, the credentials of Webb, Snow, and Dragoo have never been brought into question. With so many researchers scrambling today to discover irrefutable evidence of gigantic or otherwise anomalous beings to prove their existence, the authors question why they do not simply present the works of William S Webb and Don Dragoo to anthropologists, and more importantly, their audiences.

While the concept of a mysterious and undiscovered race may create an air of sensationalism healthy for selling books and DVDs, we feel that it is of far more relevance to demonstrate that the Unique Physical Types were discovered by professionals all the way up through the 20th century, even after the institutionalized policy of denial, and yet the establishment continues to deny their own documented evidence and the truth.

Featured image: Illustration from "Mundus subterraneus" - suggesting that fossil bones were from giants (Wikimedia Commons).

By Jason Jarrell and Sarah Farmer

References:

The Dover Mound, William S Webb and Charles Snow 1959. The measurement of the giant is on page 22, the burial census is on pages 29-32, and the dental anomalies are photographed on page 43.

Mortuary Variability in the Middle Big Darby Drainage of Central Ohio Between 300 BC and 300 AD Volume 1, Bruce Aument.

Ohio Archaeologist, 10 (4), Oct 1960. Article and photograph on pages 140-141.

https://kb.osu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/1811/55999/OHIO_ARCHAEOLOGIST_10_4_OCTOBER_1960.pdf?sequence=1

The Adena People, No 2, by Webb and Baby.

The Archaeological History of Ohio, by Gerald Fowke, page 372.

Mounds for the Dead, by Don Dragoo (1963). Burial 54 is measured and described on page 67, and an actual photograph of the skeleton in situ appears on page 50.

A History of Old Tioga Point and Early Athens, Pennsylvania, by Louis Welles Murray. Large Skeletons appear in the text around page 200. Page 203 features a photo of a large type in situ.

https://archive.org/stream/ahistoryoldtiog00murrgoog#page/n8/mode/2up

Aboriginal Sites In And Near “Teaoga”, Now Athens, Pennsylvania, in American Anthropologist 23(2) 1921 page 183. The article features a photo of the “pygmy artifacts”.

Comments

the Nephilim, children on the fallen angels. The elongated skulls makes them look alien, in human body. The Paracas elongated skull, came back with results that had unknown mtDNA, I wonder if these skulls would be the same.

These anomalies are most definitely a product of a disorder altering the production of growth hormone, or somatotrophic hormone.

I believe this is clear, as hypersecretion leads to Gigantism even in children. In adults it causes a condition known as Acromegaly, which results in enlarged hands, jawbone and brows, just as is described of these giants throughout these two articles. This disorder arises from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland beneath the hypothalamus in the brain.

It is an absolutely fascinating topic and it is a shame that scientist so often refuse to remain impartial. This closed mindedness only results in a loss of knowledge for mankind.

Yes acromegaly comes to mind. And moreover, 7 foot tall without hormonal disturbance is not that rare. Peter the Great , of Russia was over 6'7'' and well built.

Tall men have always produced a great charismatic impression over normal sized people. Just look at average size of political leaders. Of course there are exceptions.

Peter Harrap's picture

I have read parts 1 and 2, all of it. There is whining about a cover-up of this information- but it was freely available: you just had to ask!!

Second, as there are nowhere here noted individuals above 7 feet in height, and as there are several tribes where such heights are the norm, why the fuss?

People habitually grow big and strong if there diets are good and they exercise enough. You might like to examine records of average heights among those born in the UK during and after WW2. when bread sugar and meat were rationed. Meat was rationed in the UK until 1954. Etcetera.Diet affects height, as well as girth!!

 

I am already kicking myself for getting involved in this discussion. I do so in case someone might be steered away from believing this silliness. Why do the people who subjected us to this discussion have so little regard for formal training and years of study involving field work and the reading of thousands of books and articles? To hear them tell it our observations are not worth anything more than a 19th century ditch digger and probably not as much, since we are apparently involved in a conspiracy to hide the evidence of the fairy-tale world they like to believe obtained in North America in Pre-Columbian times. Why would we want to do that? Most of us are not involved in religion so have no religious position to defend. Were we to find a real honest-to-goodness giant (not just someone within the range of modern populations such as those reported from Dover Mound, but the fairy-tale kind as in the drawing illustrating this entry) it would be a real boon for our career.

In addition to maligning the anthropological community as a bunch of people covering up the truth, they have presumed to comment on subject about which they know nothing as if using terms like "gigantic humanoids (as if these Indians were not humans) in reference to professional "admissions"

and present a number of references as if they support their argument when they often say their impression was that the average height of the skeletons was approximately six feet or that the people buried in a particular mound were gigantic. They present as evidence that a woman thought the small stone artifacts she found on her farm were possibly made by Pygmies! If they knew the first thing about archaeology they would know that small stone tools and weapons (microliths) were associated with numerous cultures across time and space and the associated skeletons were standard-sized modern humans. Of course, that does not prove the finds discussed as evidence were not made by pygmies or leprechauns, for that matter, but there is reason to believe neither is the case. It is telling that they have the authors and dates wrong for Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley when they picture its frontice of the Marietta group . It is possibly the most famous single book on North American archaeology. They even make a questionable reference to Squire and Davies, the actual authors.

Since we all know we can find 7' people on any NBA court and many, if not most, university basketball courts and they are members of our species, does that mean we are all members of a race of gigantic humanoids? One more thing, having someone draw a sketch of a gigantic Indian is not proof that there was a race of gigantic humanoids.
I understand the authors are probably not open to reason. This essay shows how desperate they are to make a case for which there is no evidence. Doubtless the people in their community will feel they have written a scholarly work and give them kudos for it, but it is to be hoped that people who are not already believers will not be taken in by this demonstrably absurd presentation. Of course, they have every right to their own opinions but they do not have the right to their own facts.

Nobody is suggesting that all of anthropology is in on a cover up. What they are suggesting is that there is and has been a cover up by a small group of very influential people and institutions. We also suggest that mainstream academic anthropology and archaeology is not nearly as 'scientific' as the members of that community would like to believe. You people assume models you've been handed by your high priests are established fact, when they are in fact just models, and there is enormous physical evidence which contradicts your models. If you're interested in really challenging your beliefs, I'd recommend this book on the subject: http://www.amazon.com/Ancient-Giants-Who-Ruled-America/dp/1591431719/ref...

When engaging in debate, we should always be aiming to get at the truth. Always interpret your intellectual opponents views in the most charitable way possible.

"The Burial Census Table mentions that this skeleton had a 'very thick' skull and represented the 'tallest Adena male' from the mound."

Oh good! Let's examine the skull bone! Oh wait! There IS no skull to examine...it's just ANOTHER anecdote held up as "proof."

Do we have reason to believe the Dover Mound skeletons are not available to scholars in the Webb Museum at the U of K? Certainly other skeletal collections are. I think most anthropologists would take the observations of Charles Snow as valid, though I suppose they could be called anecdotal. I believe there was a 7'- tall man buried in the Dover mound and some of those reported elsewhere may also be legitimate. Those skeletons excavated by the Bureau of American Ethnology are probably available for examination. The point I was trying to make is that an occasional anomalous individual does not justify claims of a "lost race of giant humanoids" anymore than the rare members of our contemporary population of that size do. Those of us who oppose such silliness need not refuse to accept evidence like Snow's analysis of the Dover skeletons.

I really enjoy your site .Fantastic .Thank you so much. Maybe take some time and hava look at Giant stuff and elongated heads from some others on youtube.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dRuxw-nZoJw
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SnAgOagVO2c
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-QnF_RvEaAg
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JnERUZNqwbc
May be a rethink for some. Denial for others?

Alan C's picture

Interestingly, Mormon history records that in 1834, founder Joseph Smith and others stumbled on a mound in west-central Illinois and, digging into it, found a skeleton and arrow about a foot deep into the mound. One of the witnesses wrote in his journal that the skeleton was of an “extraordinary large person or human being” and estimated the skeleton to be eight or nine feet tall based on the size of the thigh bone. Smith named him Zelph the Lamanite.

Turns out the mound is Havana Hopewell and is now known as Naples-Russell Mound Number 8 in Pike County, Illinois.    

 

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Fide et Literis

Bemusing subject and engaging commentary so far. This 'Race of Giants' may not be so lost as one might think. Could it be that contemporary Big Foot encounters in North America, are actually sightings of some resilient Racial Remnants of an ancient gene pool of Giants or Hormonal Mutants? Just abit of brainstorming/speculation! What say you? JDMo

today we have large people and small people and all in between. But there is a physical limit to large size beyond which the human body cannot function or sometimes even survive. Ask about the day to day problems that even 7 footers experience. The mechanics of the body cannot function as they should if that body becomes too large. Ergo a race of giants (depending on what size you decide "giant" is) is more than extremely unlikely. For this reason, science fiction films where people are shrunk or made larger are just that - fiction.

Here's a thought...The Australian Native tribes of the Torres Island...Giants in modern day actuality, well researched but always ignored in these discussions, not only here but elsewhere too....sadly, recently extinct.

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