2.8-Billion-Year-Old Spheres Found in South Africa

2.8-Billion-Year-Old Spheres Found in South Africa: How Were They Made?

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By Tara MacIsaac Epoch Times

Spheres found in the mines of South Africa have piqued the curiosity of researchers for decades.

According to Michael Cremo and other researchers of prehistoric culture, these spheres add to a body of evidence suggesting intelligent life existed on Earth long before a conventional view of history places it here.

Cremo has traveled the world gathering information on out-of-place artefacts (ooparts); he compiled his findings in the popular book, “Forbidden Archaeology: The Hidden History of the Human Race.”

In 1984, while investigating the spheres, he contacted Roelf Marx, curator of the museum of Klerksdorp, South Africa, where some of the spheres are kept. Marx described the spheres as being about 2.8 billion years old, with a very hard surface and a fibrous structure inside. He found them quite strange and puzzling.

Marx wrote, according to Cremo: “’There is nothing scientific published about the globes, but the facts are: They are found in pyrophyllite, which is mined near the little town of Ottosdal in the Western Transvaal. This pyrophyllite … is a quite soft secondary mineral with a count of only 3 on the Mohs scale [a scale of 1 to 10 to rank the hardness of minerals] and was formed by sedimentation about 2.8 billion years ago.

“On the other hand, the globes, which have a fibrous structure on the inside with a shell around it, are very hard and cannot be scratched, even by steel. The Mohs scale of hardness is named after Friedrich Mohs, who chose ten minerals as references points for comparative hardness, with talc the softest and diamond the hardest.”

Steel ranks about a 6.5 to 7.5 on the Mohs scale, so the spheres would be harder than that, according to Marx. 

Were They Naturally Formed?

Some say the spheres were formed by a natural process of concretion. Concretions are masses of hardened mineral matter.

Some of the so-called Klerksdorp spheres are elliptical in shape with rough ridges around the center. But some are so balanced in shape and proportion, and the grooves around them look so straight and hand-carved, it seems unlikely they were naturally formed, say proponents of the theory that these spheres were made by intelligent beings.

In 2002, the Klerksdorp Museum posted a letter from John Hund of Pietersburg, South Africa, on its website. The claims made in this letter were not verified,  according to geologist Paul V. Heinrich , and the letter was later removed. Hund stated that one of the spheres was tested at the California Space Institute, and scientists concluded that its balance “is so fine, it exceeded the limit of their measuring technology.” It was “within one-hundred thousandths of an inch from absolute perfection.” 

Heinrich did not find the South African spheres he studied perfectly balanced and shaped.

Moqui Marbles of Utah

In Utah, similar spheres were found. They are about 2 million years old, and they are known as Moqui marbles or Moqui balls. Legend holds that the departed ancestors of the Hopi Native Americans would play games with the marbles and leave them as messages to their relatives that they are happy and well.

Moqui marbles have a sandy interior and a hard, round exterior made of iron oxide. Heinrich’s tests on one of the Klerksdorp spheres showed it to be made of hematite, a mineral form of iron oxide. He found another Klerksdorp sphere consisted of the mineral wollastonite along with hematite and geothite, a hydrated iron oxide.

Various theories for exactly how these spheres may have been made are presented by those who say they are natural phenomena. Dr. Karrie Weber at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln is researching microbes that she has said may have helped form the spheres out of the by-products of its life processes. 

Geologist Dave Crosby, who has done research in Utah where the Moqui marbles are found, originally hypothesized that a meteor impact scattered molten spheres that then condensed on sand grains. Upon closer examination, as explained on RocksandMinerals.com, he found no evidence of a meteor impact. He then developed a theory that involves rainwater dissolving iron and other minerals and carrying them to the groundwater. As they flow through the groundwater, the ions are deposited around sand grains forming spheres.

Cremo, and others who hold that ooparts are evidence of advanced prehistoric civilizations, say mainstream scientists need to be more bold and more willing to acknowledge evidence that could contradict dominant views. 

The article ‘ 2.8-Billion-Year-Old Spheres Found in South Africa: How Were They Made ?’ originally appeared on The Epoch Times and has been republished with permission.

Comments

RalphTuckerSr's picture

Well, let’s look at this from another level instead of being so scientifically lofty. How about the end of a projectile, made or naturally formed, to kill very large creatures?

Carl Sagan once said something to the effect that extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof.  This is the basis of science.  If it can't be proved, then it is conjecture, opinion, theory, myth, or just plain hokum.  I had still been holding onto my religious beliefs somewhat until I really got into the subject of ancient aliens, and for the first time, the belief that all of the god stuff that is central to any religious belief system likely has it's roots in visitations in ancient times by someone from somewhere.  It all made much more sense to me than a hairy thunderer or a cosmic muffin that was just based entirely on faith.  And so it is with everything.  The core of christian belief and the challenges they impose upon science is that whatever idiot beliefs they have are substantiated solely on faith, not science.  That's insane.  Even a lot of the ancient alien stuff is pretty stupid when it isn't backed up by solid science.  It's just conjecture.  Like Mead said, "I'm not saying it's aliens, but it's aliens," type of thinking.  To suggest that the balls mentioned in this article are some ancient intelligence relic without anything to back up that claim, is tantamount to suggesting that sticks can be turned into snakes, waters can be parted on demand, or water can be changed to wine.  If anybody really wants to know the truth about these balls, they should be turned over to scientists who can do all the necessary tests on them that would prove conclusively what they are.  Sadly, however, they will likely find that they are, as some have suggested, only ironstone nodules or concretions that are fairly commonly found in certain types of sedimentary rocks such as shale.  Many times they contain fossils, such as the Pennsylvanian aged nodules found in the coal-bearing rocks of the Braidwood area in Illinois.  I have collected these things, so I had the proof of this in my hand.  The fact that there are anomalous features on the stones in this article is no doubt due to something, but without proof, no one should make the wild-ass claim that they were made by some ancient culture or intelligence.  You might as well say that they are some sort of christian relic left behind by Jesus while he zoomed around the planet during his "lost years."  Same difference.  And while there is no evidence existing that says conclusively aliens visited the Earth thousands of years ago, and this is what most of the world’s religions are built around, I prefer to believe this because it makes a hell of a lot more sense.  Yes, I have no proof of this theory, but there is no proof of anything to the contrary either.

   

Lets for a moment put aside both the theory of evolution and creationism.
Thank you.

Lets not be so ignorant as to think that we are the only intelligent beings in this infinite universe. There are anywhere between hundreds of millions and billions of stars inside our milky way galaxy. Our Sun is one of them, JUST one of them. NOTHING special about our Sun, our star.

Is it that incomprehensible that just MAYBE intelligent beings lived on the earth or visited the earth 2 billion years ago? Or are we going to remain blisfully ignorant of scientifically possible scenarios OUTSIDE our comfort zones? Because that's easier to do than considering just MAYBE we humans only know about 5% of our total ancient history?
Put subjective opinions one side please, and start seriously considering ALL possible scenarios, doesnt matter how unlikely they seem to you. Until proven false beyond any doubt, it remains a strong possibility that these spheres are NOT naturally formed, but made by intelligent beings.

Thanks
Jerome

Peter Harrap's picture

Nobody can prove dating this immense. We are told ... yes.... but it ain't necessarily so.

The Moqui marbles are supposed to be only 2 million years old, but the 2.8 billion year-old Ottosdaal spheres illustrated are 1.4 million times older? (accepting the true meaning of a billion, of a million millions, rather than the US version of only a 1000 million ).

I put these divisive and diametrically distanced definitions of exactly the same word in to ask WHICH billion are we using here, and I do this for both reasons .

"Science" cannot even agree which one to use, and "science" is surely as confounded by such ages. Methods of dating lack accuracy as one goes back in time.

Besides, the decay of radioactive elements that we believe to be fixed, is not at all: the states are conditioned in fact by their circumstances and environment.

Since everybody agrees that our planet has undergone changes where we were not present to make measurements, can we even be certain that elements behaved then as they do now, and these spheres might surely have been formed from old matter, yet at a far more recent date anyway.

Or they may predate Earth's creation and be the fossilized remains of the playthings of LONG ago. Or clever forgeries...

This is one of the most interesting and intriguing articles i have read here!

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