2.8-Billion-Year-Old Spheres Found in South Africa

2.8-Billion-Year-Old Spheres Found in South Africa: How Were They Made?

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By Tara MacIsaac Epoch Times

Spheres found in the mines of South Africa have piqued the curiosity of researchers for decades.

According to Michael Cremo and other researchers of prehistoric culture, these spheres add to a body of evidence suggesting intelligent life existed on Earth long before a conventional view of history places it here.

Cremo has traveled the world gathering information on out-of-place artefacts (ooparts); he compiled his findings in the popular book, “Forbidden Archaeology: The Hidden History of the Human Race.”

In 1984, while investigating the spheres, he contacted Roelf Marx, curator of the museum of Klerksdorp, South Africa, where some of the spheres are kept. Marx described the spheres as being about 2.8 billion years old, with a very hard surface and a fibrous structure inside. He found them quite strange and puzzling.

Marx wrote, according to Cremo: “’There is nothing scientific published about the globes, but the facts are: They are found in pyrophyllite, which is mined near the little town of Ottosdal in the Western Transvaal. This pyrophyllite … is a quite soft secondary mineral with a count of only 3 on the Mohs scale [a scale of 1 to 10 to rank the hardness of minerals] and was formed by sedimentation about 2.8 billion years ago.

“On the other hand, the globes, which have a fibrous structure on the inside with a shell around it, are very hard and cannot be scratched, even by steel. The Mohs scale of hardness is named after Friedrich Mohs, who chose ten minerals as references points for comparative hardness, with talc the softest and diamond the hardest.”

Steel ranks about a 6.5 to 7.5 on the Mohs scale, so the spheres would be harder than that, according to Marx. 

Were They Naturally Formed?

Some say the spheres were formed by a natural process of concretion. Concretions are masses of hardened mineral matter.

Some of the so-called Klerksdorp spheres are elliptical in shape with rough ridges around the center. But some are so balanced in shape and proportion, and the grooves around them look so straight and hand-carved, it seems unlikely they were naturally formed, say proponents of the theory that these spheres were made by intelligent beings.

In 2002, the Klerksdorp Museum posted a letter from John Hund of Pietersburg, South Africa, on its website. The claims made in this letter were not verified,  according to geologist Paul V. Heinrich , and the letter was later removed. Hund stated that one of the spheres was tested at the California Space Institute, and scientists concluded that its balance “is so fine, it exceeded the limit of their measuring technology.” It was “within one-hundred thousandths of an inch from absolute perfection.” 

Heinrich did not find the South African spheres he studied perfectly balanced and shaped.

Moqui Marbles of Utah

In Utah, similar spheres were found. They are about 2 million years old, and they are known as Moqui marbles or Moqui balls. Legend holds that the departed ancestors of the Hopi Native Americans would play games with the marbles and leave them as messages to their relatives that they are happy and well.

Moqui marbles have a sandy interior and a hard, round exterior made of iron oxide. Heinrich’s tests on one of the Klerksdorp spheres showed it to be made of hematite, a mineral form of iron oxide. He found another Klerksdorp sphere consisted of the mineral wollastonite along with hematite and geothite, a hydrated iron oxide.

Various theories for exactly how these spheres may have been made are presented by those who say they are natural phenomena. Dr. Karrie Weber at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln is researching microbes that she has said may have helped form the spheres out of the by-products of its life processes. 

Geologist Dave Crosby, who has done research in Utah where the Moqui marbles are found, originally hypothesized that a meteor impact scattered molten spheres that then condensed on sand grains. Upon closer examination, as explained on RocksandMinerals.com, he found no evidence of a meteor impact. He then developed a theory that involves rainwater dissolving iron and other minerals and carrying them to the groundwater. As they flow through the groundwater, the ions are deposited around sand grains forming spheres.

Cremo, and others who hold that ooparts are evidence of advanced prehistoric civilizations, say mainstream scientists need to be more bold and more willing to acknowledge evidence that could contradict dominant views. 

The article ‘ 2.8-Billion-Year-Old Spheres Found in South Africa: How Were They Made ?’ originally appeared on The Epoch Times and has been republished with permission.


Surely youd consider them being some kind of Seed/Fruit that have fossilised. Maybe even Nuts, hard on the outside, fiber in the middle. The fact there are lots found in one place would mean say, a tree at the edge of a peat bog (just as an example) and over the years a load of fruit/nuts fall in and 2  billion years later they get uncovered.
not that i have any evidence for that, but i find the idea of humans being around 2 billion years ago a lot more far fetched than my Nut theory

Quite fascinating. Although the legions of those who do not think for themselves...the ones who believe in the fundamentally flawed THEORY of evolution will cry a foul.

The irony drips off your comment

Umm.. according to current theory there were no trees 2.8 billion years ago. I think the common theory is "stromatolites" were around. Bacterial colonies..

Ohh ok yeah my bad then ^^ I was just using it as an example, but when i think about it yeah thats possibly a bit to far back for trees >.< but i think you get my general meaning

I don't think they mean man made the stone into the spheres 2.8 billion years ago, pretty sure they mean the material used is 2.8 billion years old, there is NO way to date the actually date they were rolled into a sphere only the age of the stone itself, its rock how could you possibly date when they were made unless you have the actual quarry and tools and what not, maybe even know when that region was inhabited with peoples using some other form of dating like pottery

pottery can be dated as it was actually made at that time but rock was made at any point between earth made on date and now due to volcanic activity, earthquakes, water erosion, tilt and so on..

all that can be dated here is how old the stone has been around not when the sphere was made


Artifacts found in sedimentary layers, or encased in solid rock, are dated by geologists according to when the material around them is thought to have been formed.


Plants didn't exist yet.
Plants did not exist until 450 Million years ago.
Life wasn't Multicellular until 1.5 Billion years ago.
2 Billion years ago Eukaryotes barely existed.
2.8 Billion years ago, the only life around were simple prokaryotes, some of which maybe had the ability to photosynthesise.

When you consider the real true age of the planet is at least 7.5 Billion years old. Humans whether it be modern Terrans / Earthans. Or some humans from another planet. The idea that they were here 2 or 3 Billion years ago is not such a far fetched idea. This planet it's self has switched orbits in this solar system 3 times and was brought in from the Ursa Major Alpha System. It didn't even form here contrary to what scientist would like us to believe.

To starwalker. Just wondering if you can enlighten us more on what you've stated. Would love to know where your information was gained. Not ripping you off but am interested in more reading.

You know father Chrismtas sees, hears and reads everything in the universe so beware when spreading such utter nonsense!

Dear Me everyone knows from Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy that the Earth was towed from Magrathea by Slartbartfast I'm not saying it's Aliens but it's Aliens!!

I have no clue what the answer is, however I begin to doubt some of the dating methods, 2Billion years?! what kind of item would survive that long? even a rock would wither away. Research the dating methods they can be wildly off-base, for example if you date some of the recent geological events that we know happened hundreds of years ago - they can date them at millions or even hundreds of millions of years.

I do "believe" in science but you have to ask some hard questions too.

That is pretty easy...the article gives the answer. Something that hard would not just degrade over time like any old rock will. It depends on the hardness. A rock with 2 or 3 wouldn't last that long...but it says that these must be at least 7.5 or 8.5. Something that hard could last a very, very long time. Besides...it is possible that it is approaching the hardness of diamond.

I have some like these that are all white. They are not magnetic, but you cannot chip them with a sledge hammer. A friend of mine founds hundreds of them.

I'd love to see those! Where did your friend find them? Do you have any you could send out for testing?

One of those things looks like a cricket ball.... Could it be that aliens have visited the Earth billions of years ago and introduced the game to prehistoric Graptolites..as ancient alien theorists suggest??

Allow me to explain.
The balls were made in a process you are incapable of understanding.
They were made by creatures you are unfamiliar with.
I hope that clears it up for you.

Tsurugi's picture

No, it isn't clear yet. You forgot to tell me about how I've no hope of comprehending the methods by which these were each encoded with the complete musical works of Harry Belafonte.

Quite likely those balls belong to our President, Barack Hussein Obama.

Tsurugi's picture

At this point I think it is clear our President does not possess any balls at all, African or otherwise.

This is an interesting article, for sure; I've known about these Spheres for years, but there's nothing new here —only speculation and no answers. How were the Spheres created, manufactured, made? Unknown. Where did they *originate*? Unknown. (South Africa is where they claim to be FOUND) If the Sphere are indeed manufactured (they appear to be) —Who did this .. and Why? Unknown. What are they composed from/of? Unknown ...


Do you think any useful information could be gained by compiling info on all known spheres and their age and where found?
I favor a view that our planet undergoes-with all bodies inside our system--an induced change in molecular composition instigated by our sun. See NASA A Star With Two North Poles
These SA are small, and the ones of the Olmec period are large. Even the Bonian pyramid complex is said to have these large spheres.
Perhaps there is a connection between our sun's solar activity and their production? Perhaps the activity once affected the entire globe but now is only seen in specific sites? Perhaps this energy exits the Earth's core in a much reduced form, a focused beam of electrons that leave only evidence of themselves as a condensed form of mineral?

I take interest in most unexplained finds.

2.8 billion years.........mind-boggling

Sunny Young

i'm all about getting wrapped up in a good mystery.. but why is this being re-hashed without further substantiating research. what dating methods were used? were the surfaces examined for environmental indicators? were they thoroughly imaged inside and outside? nature produces many spheres as they are a simple and stable form of something heating or cooling or hydrophobic or hydrophillic or something undergoing equilateral erosion, or something protecting itself like an ancient mollusk or ancient seed, or fossilized dung beetle poo ball where the occassionally made patterns in them from an evolved mating display, or like dinosaur kidney stone that ancient man collected and carved for good luck, or meteorite pieces that were moved with tectonic activity, or extra terrestrial pool balls to play among their planet when they came to visit and just loved billiards. like i want more than one goddamn professional theory being tested. i hate when supposed scientists are soo wrapped up in a self fulfilling prophecy cause they have one concept when looking for objects or one idea when in a regions or one dream to hunt down in their career. they're bound to find substantiation whether its an accurate rendition of reality or not will probably come out after they've died peacefully thinking they made the breakthrough. grumph. it may not always be the simplest solution, but theres no reason not to have concurrent solutions being major factors and not displaying which until more information comes in.

These are iron oxide concretions created from Navajo Sandstone by Hopi Native Americans.

Tsurugi's picture

Yeah...hmmm....so you should probably read the article.

We Are The Original Infinite Creators of All LifeForms...The TRUTH IS THE TRUTH! ((:)

This is one of the most interesting and intriguing articles i have read here!

Peter Harrap's picture

Nobody can prove dating this immense. We are told ... yes.... but it ain't necessarily so.

The Moqui marbles are supposed to be only 2 million years old, but the 2.8 billion year-old Ottosdaal spheres illustrated are 1.4 million times older? (accepting the true meaning of a billion, of a million millions, rather than the US version of only a 1000 million ).

I put these divisive and diametrically distanced definitions of exactly the same word in to ask WHICH billion are we using here, and I do this for both reasons .

"Science" cannot even agree which one to use, and "science" is surely as confounded by such ages. Methods of dating lack accuracy as one goes back in time.

Besides, the decay of radioactive elements that we believe to be fixed, is not at all: the states are conditioned in fact by their circumstances and environment.

Since everybody agrees that our planet has undergone changes where we were not present to make measurements, can we even be certain that elements behaved then as they do now, and these spheres might surely have been formed from old matter, yet at a far more recent date anyway.

Or they may predate Earth's creation and be the fossilized remains of the playthings of LONG ago. Or clever forgeries...

Lets for a moment put aside both the theory of evolution and creationism.
Thank you.

Lets not be so ignorant as to think that we are the only intelligent beings in this infinite universe. There are anywhere between hundreds of millions and billions of stars inside our milky way galaxy. Our Sun is one of them, JUST one of them. NOTHING special about our Sun, our star.

Is it that incomprehensible that just MAYBE intelligent beings lived on the earth or visited the earth 2 billion years ago? Or are we going to remain blisfully ignorant of scientifically possible scenarios OUTSIDE our comfort zones? Because that's easier to do than considering just MAYBE we humans only know about 5% of our total ancient history?
Put subjective opinions one side please, and start seriously considering ALL possible scenarios, doesnt matter how unlikely they seem to you. Until proven false beyond any doubt, it remains a strong possibility that these spheres are NOT naturally formed, but made by intelligent beings.


Carl Sagan once said something to the effect that extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof.  This is the basis of science.  If it can't be proved, then it is conjecture, opinion, theory, myth, or just plain hokum.  I had still been holding onto my religious beliefs somewhat until I really got into the subject of ancient aliens, and for the first time, the belief that all of the god stuff that is central to any religious belief system likely has it's roots in visitations in ancient times by someone from somewhere.  It all made much more sense to me than a hairy thunderer or a cosmic muffin that was just based entirely on faith.  And so it is with everything.  The core of christian belief and the challenges they impose upon science is that whatever idiot beliefs they have are substantiated solely on faith, not science.  That's insane.  Even a lot of the ancient alien stuff is pretty stupid when it isn't backed up by solid science.  It's just conjecture.  Like Mead said, "I'm not saying it's aliens, but it's aliens," type of thinking.  To suggest that the balls mentioned in this article are some ancient intelligence relic without anything to back up that claim, is tantamount to suggesting that sticks can be turned into snakes, waters can be parted on demand, or water can be changed to wine.  If anybody really wants to know the truth about these balls, they should be turned over to scientists who can do all the necessary tests on them that would prove conclusively what they are.  Sadly, however, they will likely find that they are, as some have suggested, only ironstone nodules or concretions that are fairly commonly found in certain types of sedimentary rocks such as shale.  Many times they contain fossils, such as the Pennsylvanian aged nodules found in the coal-bearing rocks of the Braidwood area in Illinois.  I have collected these things, so I had the proof of this in my hand.  The fact that there are anomalous features on the stones in this article is no doubt due to something, but without proof, no one should make the wild-ass claim that they were made by some ancient culture or intelligence.  You might as well say that they are some sort of christian relic left behind by Jesus while he zoomed around the planet during his "lost years."  Same difference.  And while there is no evidence existing that says conclusively aliens visited the Earth thousands of years ago, and this is what most of the world’s religions are built around, I prefer to believe this because it makes a hell of a lot more sense.  Yes, I have no proof of this theory, but there is no proof of anything to the contrary either.

RalphTuckerSr's picture

Well, let’s look at this from another level instead of being so scientifically lofty. How about the end of a projectile, made or naturally formed, to kill very large creatures?

They look like these only smaller - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moeraki_Boulders

There are some like this in New Zealand. When I was living there, von Daniken (in one of his more especially bizarre moments) described them as the waste products of flying saucers. The image of their production has amused me in occasional quiet moments ever since.

It's a pity that the description says, "Top left, bottom right: Spheres..." when they are visibly two photos of the the same one. One could easily, accidentally, and (in all probability) incorrectly assume that all the spheres have that triple banding; but perhaps there was ever only one such. That, unfortunately makes me think that a particularly unusual and artificial-looking example has been chosen to convey an impression that would not be supported by a random sample.

Quite likely they belong toOur President, Barack Hussein Obama

I'd be interested to know the exact nature of the contents of these objects. Saying that it is of a fibrous nature doesn't go deep enough. What *kind* of fibrous are we talking about? Maybe the kind of fruiting body that releases spores of some kind? Or something like a papaya. containing seeds? Are they a deliberate seeding attempt by some long-extinct race from "out there" which relied upon the cases breaking when they struck solid ground? I seem to recall reading somewhere that Transvaal was once at the bottom of a shallow sea. Could these have survived the inbound journey by striking that water and simply sinking, to become encased in countless layers of sediment?

Without specific information on what constitutes the insides of the objects, all we interested amateurs can do is speculate. Fun, but far from conclusive.

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