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Artist's conception of Calusa people preparing for fishing in the estuary. Source: Image by Merald Clark.

Grand Ceremonial House of the King of the Calusa People Has Been Located in Florida

The National Geographic has reported that archaeologists have discovered an ancient Native American king’s house in Florida. A team has uncovered the foundations of a large dwelling and this is...
‘The Triumph of Bacchus’ (1628-1629) by Diego Velázquez.

Emblems of the Spanish Golden Age: The Hapsburgs, Cervantes, Diego Velazquez, and El Escorial

The Spanish Golden Age (known in Spanish as ‘Siglo de Oro’) was a period when the arts experienced a great flourishing in Spain. Whilst this period is often remembered as the age when Spanish...
Battle of the sinking of the San Jose.  Action off Cartagena, May 28, 1708.

The 21st Century Battle for the Treasure of the San José

310 years ago, a 62-gun Spanish galleon, the San Jos é , was sunk by the British Navy in the Caribbean Sea during the War of Spanish Succession. With a heavy cargo of gold, silver and emeralds...
Salmonella bacteria, a common cause of foodborne disease, invade an immune cell.

Scientists Find aDNA Evidence of the Bacteria that Almost Wiped out the Aztecs

Architectural investigations of the Grand Plaza resulted in the unexpected discovery of a large epidemic cemetery associated with the 1545-1550 cocoliztli epidemic. The cemetery was found to contain...
Aztec Avenue of the Dead stretches out before pyramids and shops of Mexico.

Did Spanish Spin Doctors Change the Name of Teotihuacan to Sabotage the City?

The famous archaeological site of Teotihuacan may have served a different purpose for the Aztecs to what Spanish chroniclers claimed. A possibly deliberate change of the city’s name suggests that it...
Caves of Loltun, Mexico

Loltun Cave Art and Precious Clues to the Lost Mayan Civilization

There is a kid’s poem written by Jean Marzollo that begins: “In fourteen hundred ninety-two, Columbus sailed the ocean blue.” It goes on speak about the challenges and wonders of Columbus’s voyage to...
An illustration of François l’Olonnais.

François l’Olonnais: Cunning and Cruel Pirate and Flail of the Spanish

François l’Olonnais was a notorious French buccaneer who lived during the 17th century. l’Olonnais’ career as a pirate lasted about 10 years, from 1660 till his death in 1668/9. During this period,...
Hatun Tópac; Viracocha, Portraits of Inca Kings, and Inca Tunic (Public Domain), Machu Picchu

Origin Myths of the Inca Civilization & Piecing Together Royal Heritage

According to most historical accounts, especially those collected by the early Spanish chroniclers of the 16th century, and just after the destructive efforts of the conquistadors, the Inca were...
Guifré el Pilós (Wilfred the Hairy), Founder of Catalonia, Slaying a Dragon. Cathedral of Barcelona. Spain.

10 Historic Reasons Catalonia is Fighting for Independence from Spain

On Sunday 1st October, a referendum for independence – deemed illegal by the Spanish government – was held in Catalonia, an autonomous Spanish region, with 90% of Catalans choosing independence from...
Bearded Gods of the Americas Were Jesus Resurrected?! Maybe. But Why is the Plumed Serpent Ubiquitous?

Bearded Gods of the Americas Were Jesus Resurrected?! Maybe. But Why is the Plumed Serpent Ubiquitous?

It is claimed by some authors that white missionaries or "gods" visited America before Christopher Columbus. Authors usually quote from mythology and legends which discuss ancient gods such as the...
Two of the ancient Kilwa coins.

Ancient African Coins Found in Australia Pose Interesting Questions About the Nation’s History

According to Australia’s established history, European adventurers and explorers were the first foreigners to step foot on the continent – first Dutchman Willem Janszoon in 1606, and later Captain...
The Spanish Armada, 1577

Will The Lost Fleet of Hernán Cortés And Its Treasures of the Aztec Finally be Found?

The search for the lost fleet of Hernán Cortés – the man who invaded and conquered Central America – is about to launch soon. Archaeologists suggest that the lost ships probably lie at the bottom of...
Burial at the Aztec site of Colhuacatonco belonging to the time of Spanish contact

Archaeologists in Mexico Unearth Evidence That Aztecs Resisted Spanish Rule Even In Death

Archaeologists in Mexico have uncovered what they speculate was a dwelling where Aztecs of the higher socioeconomic classes that fought against the Spanish conquistadors tried to preserve their...
Section of skulls at the tzompantli found near the Templo Mayor, Mexico City

Gruesome Remains of Aztec Skull Tower Discovered in Mexico Include Women and Children

Archaeologists have uncovered a tower of human skulls beneath the heart of Mexico City. The new find has given birth to new questions about the culture of sacrifice in the Aztec Empire after numerous...
One of the first cultures to have books were the Maya codices written on doubled-over pages and covered by a layer of "stucco".

The Maya Codices: The Precious Remaining History of an Eradicated Civilization

The Maya were a powerful pre-Columbian civilization who thrived between AD 600 – AD 800. They were literate, had a complex language including pictograms, glyphs, and phonetic representations. They...
Eilean Donan Castle, view across the footbridge, Scotland.

Eilean Donan Castle: Idyllic Scottish Setting Carries a Dark History

Eilean Donan is a small tidal island in the western Highlands of Scotland, on which a castle can be found. This castle, known as the Eilean Donan Castle, is one of Scotland’s most easily recognised...

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