Stone at Newgrange and Celtic with X symbol

Research Decodes Ancient Celtic Astronomy Symbols and Links them to Jungian Archetypes

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Special Acknowledgements

I wish to thank the special contributors to this research, whose photos, artwork, consultations and services made this extensive work possible: graphics specialist, Kirsten Babb; graphics designer Les Still, historian and lecturer Sherri Ellington, Tony Roche, artist Kathryn Gerhardt, photographer Dave Walsh and clinician Dr. Melissa Carver.

Featured image: Deriv; Stone at Newgrange ( CC BY-SA 3.0 ), and Celtic knot with X symbol ( Public Domain )

By Lewis Hales


(Dr. M. Carver, personal communication, February 25, 2016)

(Sherri Ellington, personal communication, February, 27, 2016)

Green, Miranda J. 1992. Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend . Thames and Hudson: London.

Souden, David. 1997. Stonehenge Revealed. Facts on File, Inc.: Great Britain

Holloway, April. (2013, October 19). The Mysterious Golden Lozenge of Stonehenge. Ancient Origins. Retrieved February 5, 2016 [Online]. Here


In the top left of the photo, not the highlight green parts, you will see a concentric circle that winds around from the center and moves into a smaller concentric circle.

I think this represents the “analemma,” an astronomical phenomenon of the sun’s orbit that plays a huge role in astro-theology.

The sun has a very strange orbit over the year and people have known for thousands of years that if you plot the sun’s postiion over the year, it makes a figure 8, with the “bottom” or southern part of the 8 much bigger than the top or northern part.

You can watch people like Santos Bonacci on youttube who know astrotheology well, discuss the analemma and how it works in the ascending and descending signs of the Zodia.

Tom Carberry

Hello Tom,That is a fascinating observation and I appreciate your comment. There is no doubt that ancient astronomy was often synonymous with astrology in ancient Celtic times and your impression that that section of the artwork may have been solar oriented would be consistent with the overall veneration being expressed on that particular kerbstone.

I think the X represents the equinoxes in astrotheoloy, particularly on a flat earth model.

In astrotheoloy, draw a circle on a flat earth map like the UN map or the USGS azimuthal equidistant map (same thing without the laurel wreaths), between the tropics of cancer in the north and capricorn in the south.  Then draw the cross inside the circle.

The Zodiac fits inside this circle and cross.  Aries starts at the left point of the cross (west point).

The analemma, which I mentioned in my last post, fits into this arrangement as a figure 8 made of concentric circles of the sun, with the top half of the 8 about half the size of the bottom half.

This video should discuss it (if not, keep watching Santos Bonacci until he does, as he gives a great explanation):


Tom Carberry

luvartifacts1's picture

Hello Tom. Thanks for sending the interesting information. I intend to view   the entire video and get bak with you by this Saturday. Currently, swamped with corporate projects until the weekend.  

Lewis Hales

luvartifacts1's picture

Hello Tom,

I reviewed the video at length and it is a fascinating perspective and the beautiful analemma has to be one of the most remarkable astronomical events in the sky.

I looked closely at the its figure 8 arrangement and attempted to compare it to other patterns, motifs and symbols on our Celtic artifacts as well as artwork on the Newgrange Kerbstones and artifacts recovered from the Stonehenge area.

Ancient astronomers were very precise about their symbolic primary and enhanced artwork and would have specifically portrayed the analemma in a figure 8 arrangement if that is what they were intending to display, instead of a 3 swirl image. I do not think the swirl pattern was an analemma representation. In addition, if the figure 8 analemma had been something so meaningful that it would have been engraved on a Kerbstone, it would have also been placed on other stone monuments or artwork as well, which I do not see.

 I understand your rationale about the X being potentially representing  the equinox, but because the solar wheel symbol is so deeply associated with the sun’s orbit and solar deities, I do not believe it stood for the equinox.  Thank you for asking and the very best to you.

Lewis Hales



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