Native Americans traveling by boat

By Land or Sea? The Heated Debate on the Peopling of the Americas Continues…

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Researchers should always be ready for the next big discovery, they never know where it may come from. Having an open mind and questioning peculiar finds is what sets things in motion. Take for example the increasingly common perspective that the first people in the Americas came by boat. For one researcher, it all started with a bathroom break and an unlikely discovery on Cedros Island in Mexico.

According to the magazine Science, Matthew Des Lauriers was a graduate student at the University of California in 2004 when he came across some stone tools and shells that didn’t fit in with the other artifacts scattered about the landscape of the mountainous island believed to have been inhabited for the past 1500 years. Scooping up some shells and charcoal, he sent a sample of the out of place items for radiocarbon dating – and it came back with an unexpected date - from 11,000 to 12,000 years ago.

Matthew Des Lauriers turns a beach cobble into a stone tool like one used by people who lived on Cedros Island nearly 13,000 years ago

Matthew Des Lauriers turns a beach cobble into a stone tool like one used by people who lived on Cedros Island nearly 13,000 years ago. ( Lizzie Wade )

While it used to be common thought that the first travelers into the Americas crossed over the Bering Strait on foot, more and more studies are questioning that idea. The emerging view now suggests that ancient maritime travelers set out from Beringia about 16,000 years ago, and within just 1500 years their followers had ended up all the way down the Pacific coast to modern day Chile.

Although the discoveries Des Lauriers and others have made in the recent past show that people were already settled along the coast soon after the (mostly) agreed upon date for the first peopling of the Americas, they are not believed to have provided enough proof for the trip beginning by boat –critics, such as David Meltzer of Southern Methodist University, say it simply suggests boats were used after crossing the land bridge.

The Beringia Land Bridge. Did the earliest people entering the Americas trek this or pass by it in their boats?

The Beringia Land Bridge. Did the earliest people entering the Americas trek this or pass by it in their boats? ( CC BY SA 3.0 )

Where could that cold, hard proof (possibly) be found? Along the Alaskan and Canadian coast. As David Meltzer has said , "All eyes are on the coast." So now researchers are searching for evidence along, and under, the waters at ‘the gateway to the Americas.’

The belief in big game hunters and Clovis-first that were so prominent are now falling by the wayside as recent discoveries and improved dating techniques show time and again that the old picture doesn’t quite fit with the new information.

For example, a recent analysis of human skulls provides evidence that the Americas were not just populated by one wave of migration – in fact, researchers have said that it took several migrations of ancient Asians and possibly Australian or Polynesian people to populate the Americas thousands of years ago.

Even more surprising, research presented in April 2017 about an Ice Age site in San Diego, California proposes people were already in the Americas 130,000 years ago . The evidence for that extreme date comes from a trove of ancient bones that were apparently modified by early humans.

If that’s not enough, other researchers are continually pressing that the whole Bering Strait, people spreading down from North America belief is just not right. They sometimes present evidence in the form of unconventional dates for sites and artifacts or surprising inscriptions to support the belief that it may not have started up north.

Others say that the mainstream theory of how the Americas were populated is downright biologically unviable .

Rock paintings at Pedra Furada, Brazil.

Rock paintings at Pedra Furada, Brazil. ( CC BY SA 4.0 ) Many alternative researchers have looked to South America for the peopling of the Americas. Could it be true?

There are obviously still many missing pieces to this puzzle. The story of the first people in the Americas is always transforming and little by little we seem to be getting closer to the real story. While some ideas are certainly more controversial than others, that doesn’t mean researchers should take the easy route…our prehistoric ancestors almost certainly did not.

Top image: Native Americans traveling by boat ( public domain )

Comments

IT WAS IMPOSSIBLE FOR BOAT TRAVEL FROM ASIA AND EUROPE 13,000 + YEARS AGO BECAUSE OF THE "ICE AGE” IN THE PACIFIC.  THE ONLY PASSAGE BY BOAT TO THE AMERICAS WOULD HAVE CAME FROM AFRICA THROUGH THE ATLANTIC.  ANCIENT AMERICANS SUCH AS NAIA AND LUZIA DEMONSTRATES WHO WERE THE ORIGINAL ARRIVALS TO THE AMERICAS.   ALSO, MORE THAN 17 GIANT NEGROID OLMEC STATUES CEMENTS THE DEAL IN MY BOOK, ALONG WITH THE OLMEC STATUE WHICH IS ON DISPLAY AT THE NATIONAL MUSEUM IN TUXTECA, MEXICO, CARVED WITH A WOOLLY AFRO HAIRSTYLE AND GIVEN THE NAME "EL NEGRO" BY MEXICAN ANTHROPOLOGISTS/ARCHAEOLOGISTS..

Charles Bowles

Charles Bowles' comment is a near perfect example of some people wanting to believe something that agrees with their psychological needs versus those making sensible use of the often tedious method of eliminating the impossible and accepting what's left - improbable as it may be - as the truth, to paraphrase Sherlock Holmes. Should negroid races have populated earliest America, then the Americas would be populated even today with a race of individuals with negroid characteristics. However, even a cursory look at living native-Americans and deceased native populations over millenia of early American history show all the characteristics of Asian-featured individuals, not negroid. Exceptions that are yet to be explained do pop up now and then, but that the Apache Geronimo in no way racially resembles Shaka the Zulu - other than being human, of course - cannot be reasonably answered by anyone who advocates beliefs like Mr. Bowles'. Additionally, one can only guess at what might have been the navigability of ice-age seas by humans in boats, yet Mr. Bowles claims absolute certainty about it. Lastly, Mr. Bowles' use of capitalization demonstrates a psychological urge to forcibly convert the heathen to his views on the subject. True-belief that does not admit even the possibility of error has caused much grief in this world, and especially when it undertakes a missionary zeal about it that allows no dissent. Such has no place in science whatsoever.

ARGYRASPIDE,   MY COMMENT IS A REPRESENTATION OF FACT, WHICH IS WHAT MY PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS DESIRE, AND NOT A LOT OF LIES THAT MAKE PEOPLE LIKE YOU FEEL GOOD ABOUT YOURSELF.    FACTS ARE THAT MORE THAN 13,000 YEARS AGO THERE WAS AN ICE AGE IN THE PACIFIC WHICH MADE IT HIGHLY UNVIABLE FOR TRAVEL FROM EUROPE/ASIA TO THE AMERICAS.  THE ONLY POSSIBLE ROUTES TO THE AMERICAS WERE VIA THE ATLANTIC WHICH LEADS DIRECTLY FROM AFRICA TO BRAZIL IN SOUTH AMERICA.    SKELETAL REMAINS TELLS SCIENTISTS THAT HUMANS SETTLED IN SOUTH AMERICA FIRST AT LEAST 30,000 YEARS AGO...THE MOST WELL KNOWN SCIENTISTS ON THIS SUBJECT OF ANCIENT AMERICAN SETTLEMENTS ALL AGREE THAT THE OLDEST HUMAN REMAINS OF ‘LUZIA’ WAS NO DOUBT A “NEGROID’ AND NOT A MONGOLOID.  FURTHERMORE,  GIANT MONUMENTS WITH NEGROID FACES ARE SCATTERED OVER MANY PARTS OF MEXICO WHICH BELONG TO THE BLACK OLMEC’S.    THERE IS A OLMEC STATUE OF A 100% BLACK MAN WITH WOOLLY AFRO ON DISPLAY IN A NATIONAL MUSEUM IN TUXTECA, MEXICO WHICH MEXICANS GIVE THE NAME “EL NEGRO”.  AS YOU MENTIONED, GERONIMO DOES NOT RESEMBLE SHAKA ZULU, AND VICE VERSA, AND THAT IS BECAUSE SHAKA ZULU IS BLACK, AND GERONIMO IS NOT, SO I REALLY DON’T SEE YOUR POINT?   YOU MENTIONED WHY ARE THERE NOT MORE NEGROIDS IN THE AMERICAS SINCE THEY WERE HERE FIRST, AND THE ANSWER TO THAT DUMB QUESTION IS WHY ISN’T THERE MORE BLACK ABORIGINES IN AUSTRALIA THAN THERE ARE WHITE EUROPEANS TODAY, SINCE ABROGINES WERE THERE FIRST he he he, DO YOU GET MY DRIFT?  IN REGARDS TO MY USE OF CAPS ON MY COMPUTER IS STRICTLY NONE OF YOUR BUSINESS, SINCE I CAN TYPE IN ANY WAY I CHOOSE, AND IF THAT BOTHERS YOU, THEN I WILL HAVE TO BELIEVE THAT YOU HAVE A VERY SERIOUS PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEM WITH TRYING TO INSTRUCT PEOPLE ABOUT WHAT KEYS TO TYPE THEIR COMMENTS.  AS FOR ME, I JUST SIMPLY READ COMMENTS, AND NEVER CONCERN MYSELF ABOUT WHAT PEOPLE USE, SO I DON’T IMBUE THAT SORT OF STRESS he he he..  THERE ARE MANY PRESENT DAY LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES THAT HAVE LARGE BLACK POPULATIONS, AND SUCH AS CUBA, BRAZIL, COLOMBIA, VENEZUELA, PANAMA, COSTA RICA, EVEN MEXICO, ECUADOR ETC, AND NO THEY ARE NOT JUST PRODUCTS OF SLAVE SHIPMENTS, IN THAT THERE ARE DOCUMENTS PROVING THAT BLACKS WERE IN THE AMERICAS LONG BEFORE THE ARRIVAL OF WHITE EUROPEAN COLONIALISTS, AND I MEAN LOTS OF DOCUMENTED PROOF IF YOU CARE TO DO YOUR RESEARCH...THE ASIATIC SIBERIAN NATIVE ARRIVALS OCCURRED THOUSANDS OF YEARS AFTER THE BLACK PEOPLES ARRIVAL. WHETHER THEY BE FROM AFRICA, OR THE SOUTH PACIFIC, BECAUSE THEY ARE ALL BLACK PEOPLE REGARDLESS OF WHERE THEY ALL CAME FROM.  HOWEVER, EVIDENCE OVERWHELMINLY PROVES THAT THEY CAME FROM AFRICA…..LATER

Charles Bowles

Mr Bowles, why are you shouting?

JSMITH,   DO YOU ACTUALLY HEAR ME SHOUTING, BECAUSE IF YOU SAY “YES”, THEN I WILL KNOW THAT YOU ARE LYING.   I CAN SEE THAT YOU AND THE OTHER GUY HAVE PROBLEM WITH WHAT KEYS OTHER PEOPLE DECIDE TO TYPE  he he he.   I GUESS THAT MEANS “SHOUTING”, BUT TO ME, IT SIMPLY MEANS MY PREFERENCE TO TYPE WITH CAPS FOR A BETTER VIEW OF MY REPLY….LATER

Charles Bowles

I think that it is reasonable to speculate that the peoples in the Americas arrived by SEVERAL different methods, from MANY different areas, and at SIMILAR and VARIOUS points in time. People think that because it was thousands of years ago, that people were not as intelligent and couldn't have possibly done this or that. Sorry for you, but I think we are dumber today. If I take away all the technology and support you have from "modern' society, I'm sure you'd be dead within a year. The pioneers of the ancient past would have looked at most of us a being simple minded button pushers, monotonously going through the motions of life so we can finally pointlessly die. Charles, when you try to proclaim there is only one truth about the ancient past, even denying the possibility of undiscovered information, then you look like a blind sheep trying to get other blind sheep to follow you. No one knows with certainty the exact manner in which people came to these continents, because IT WAS TOO LONG AGO. We can only make informed GUESSES based on evidence. Still guesses.

Plus, it is a pretty common held digital belief/practice/etiquette that capitalization in text infers either emphasis or shouting. When you use ALL caps in your text, the majority of people will understand that to be shouting. I'm sorry. Just a reality.

UNREASONABLE THINKER, IT IS QUITE REASONABLE TO THINK THAT PEOPLE ARRIVED IN AMERICA AT DIFFERENT TIMES FROM DIFFERENT PLACES.  MY POINT IS THAT THE MOST EARLIEST TIMES SUCH AS 13,000+ YEARS AGO PROVES WITHOUT A  DOUBT THAT NO ONE ARRIVED IN THE AMERICAS FROM EITHER EUROPE OR ASIA BECAUSE OF THE ICE AGE GLAZIERS, ICE SHEETS ETC THAT CLOGGED THE PACIFIC, AND THAT THE ONLY VIABLE ROUTE WOULD HAVE BEEN FROM AFRICA BY WAY OF THE ATLANTIC, WHICH HAS “GULF CURRENTS’ THAT LEADS DIRECTLY FROM AFRICA INTO BRAZIL IN SOUTH AMERICA..  MOVING RIGHT ALONG, ALL OF THE EARLIEST SKELETAL REMAINS HAS BEEN PROVEN TO BE THOSE OF NEGROID PEOPLE AND NOT ASIAN MONGOLOID, SUCH AS ‘LUZIA” AND “NAIA” ACCORDING TO WORLD RENOWN SCIENTISTS SUCH AS DR. WALTER NIEVES AND MANY OTHERS.   ALSO, THERE ARE NO DOUBT OLMEC NEGROID FACIAL STATUES AND OTHER ARTIFACTS HOUSED ON DISPLAY IN MEXICO TO PROVE THOSE MANY FACTS ETC.  AS FAR AS “CAPS” INDICATE SHOUTING, WELL AGAIN, THAT IS YOUR ASSUMPTION, AS WELL AS YOUR WHITE BUDDY’S, BUT I DON’T AGREE WITH YOUR OPINION IN THAT MATTER.   I NEVER SHOUT ON A COMPUTER, INSTEAD, I TYPE IN CAPS IF I DESIRE, BECAUSE THIS IS MY COMPUTER, AND I TYPE IN CAPS IF I CHOOSE TO DO SO.    I RELY ON FACTS, AND NOT ‘FICTION” AND FAIRY TALES.  LATER 

Charles Bowles

Mr. Bowles, you continue to assert things that no one can know for certain at this time. What currents existed during the ice-age? Given the prevailing cold on the planet, it is perhaps reasonable to assume the warm currents that exist today did not exist during that time. The mighty Gulf Stream of today, for example, is a warm current. Whence the warmth when so much of the earth was covered in ice? Did the Atlantic Current even exist at the time? Both serve to warm Europe today. Additionally, your referenced NAIA was determined to have Asiatic DNA, not African. Here is an article about her: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/dna-12000-year-old-skeleton... As for LUZIA my research shows her to be hard to classify and she does show some negroid characteristics, but she is but one example and as such cannot prove your assertion as to Africans being the first to populate America. Many people believe what they want to believe and no amount of facts will dispel their certainty. You seem to fall into that category. Unlike you I am a skeptic and very open minded about most things. That includes the possibility that peoples from perhaps Africa or Australia or from places presently unknowable were first to populate the Americas. At the moment certainty of that does not exist except in the minds of those who fervently wish it to be so.

ARGYRASPIDE,  NONE OF THE ANCIENT BLACK PEOPLE WITH 100% NEGROID PHENOTYPE ARE HARD TO DEFINE, NEITHER ARE THE ANCIENT OLMEC’S IN MESOAMERICA..    DNA DOES NOT DEFINE RACE, AND YES THERE WERE ANCIENT BLACK ASIANS ACCORDING TO CHINESE SCIENTISTS WHO REPORTS THAT 2/3 OF THE SKELETAL REMAINS DUG UP IN SOUTHERN CHINA ARE THOSE OF NEGROID PEOPLE.  IT HAS NEEN REPORTED THAT THE FIRST TWO CHINESE DYNASTY’S WHICH WERE THE SHIA AND SHANG WERE UNDOUBTEDLY OF NEGROID RACIAL ANCESTRY, SO GO ARGUE WITH THE CHINESE SCIENTISTS.    ALSO, YOU CAN ARGUE WITH THE MEXICAN ANTHROPOLOGISTS/ARCHAEOLOGISTS WHO NAMED THE OLMEC SCULPTURE ON DISPLAY IN THE NATIONAL MUSEUM IN TUXTECA, MEXICO “EL NEGRO” BECAUSE OF ITS CARVED NEGROID PHENOTYPE, AS WELL AS WOOLLY AFRO HAIR.  TO ARGUE ABOUT THESE FACTS SHOWS ME THAT THESE FACTS ARE BEING DISCARDED IN YOUR MENTAL CONCEPTION…..LATER

Charles Bowles

I think the least likely option is that they all came entirely by either land or sea, more likely they used both routes.

It was not impossible to travel in a small boat from Asia to America during an ice age.
The first kind of seafaring followed the coasts and for a maritime people adapted to an arctic environment the shelf ice's rim was as good as a coast. The Inuit hunted in arctic waters, the Unangan did as well, both with seaworthy boats covering hundreds of kilometers. They did it for thousands of years using a stoneage technology.
Since the Unangan and Inuit were able to pull off such feats, there is no reason to assume, that the cold adapted ancient Paleoindians weren't. Looking at the distribution of the R1b Haplogroup in Europe and Northamerica there is even some evidence, that ancient european people living in Doggerland did the same and paddled merrily along the shelf ice's rim to North America.
I won't rule out an early passage across the Atlantic, but that didn't leave much genetic evidence for sure.

ALL EVIDENCE SHOWS BEYOND ANY DOUBT THAT THE FIRST AMERICANS WERE INDEED BLACK PEOPLE.  LUZIA, AND NAIA WERE BOTH CLASSIFIED AS NEGROID BY SOME OF THE WORLDS TOP ANTHROPOLOGISTS/ARCHAEOLOGISTS, AND THEIR SKELETAL REMAINS DATE BACK  TO THE PERIOD OF THE “ICE AGE” WHEN TRAVEL WAS UNVIABLE FROM EUROPE.ASIA TO THE AMERICAS.   THE MANY OLMEC NEGROID FACIAL SCULPTURES THAT EXISTS IN MANY PARTS OF MEXICO, AND MANY OTHER ARTIFACTS OF NEGROID PEOPLE WITH AFRO, AND AFRICAN CORNROW AND BRAIDED HAIR, AS WELL AS WEST AFRICAN FACIAL SCARIFICATIONS IN THEIR TERRACOTTA SCULPTURED FORM LEAVES ME WITH NO DOUBT THAT THE FIRST AMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS WERE OF PURE 100% NEGROID RACIAL DESCENT.   FOOLS CAN ARGUE,AND INTELLIGENT PEOPLE CAN LISTEN, BUT THAT KIND OF RHETORIC WILL NEVER CHANGE THE FACTS ABOUT WHAT EXISTS TODAY IN ANTHROPOLOGICAL/ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENTIFIC CIRCLES…..LATER

Charles Bowles

Charles Bowles, this article discusses the means of migration and transportation of the Asian/Beringian migration wave to the Americas. That's quite independent of skin color or ethnicity. It's topic is not if or when black people came to the Americas. So I'll get a little off topic too, since I do not like sloppy arguments and research.
I agree, that 'First Americans' is a misleading name for paleo indian people. I agree, that there is some evidence that there were earlier migration waves to America. The one that is assumed to have taken place at about 35000-45000 years BCA would have consisted of black people. There, happy now?
But ... there are even clues that Homo erectus/Neanderthals/a.s.o. were there before the earliest Homo sapiens. I wouldn't be surprised if Homo habilis once settled in America. They got to Flores and there are some locations in the Americas where very old pebble tools were found. The evidence for pre-sapiens migrations to America is scarce and it is not solid enough for an accepted hypothesis. That may change over the times - or not.
Luzia is one of the oldest American skeletons. It should be mentioned, that anthropologists described her as resembling Indigenous Australians, Melanesians, Negroids, or Negritos. Please, don't just pick the possibility you like and drop all others.
While Luzia might be an argument for an African contribution in the settlement of the Americas, Naia with her mutation, that was only typical for the Asian inhabitants of Beringia isn't.
Oh, there is a hypothesis, that Luzia's people migrated by boat via the Kurile Islands.
You can't use the Olmec stone heads while discussing ice age migrations. While it is true that an Egyptian/Nubian influence is possible or even likely and the culture was the first Mesoamerican urban civilization, it is a bronze age culture not older than 1600–1500 BCE - much too young to serve in an argument of 'who was first'.
Personally, I don't think that kind of argument has any merit. While of some scientific interest, it does not matter in the long run. It is much more important which peoples had the most cultural and genetic impact.

Let's get on topic again: Transport during ice age migration to America. The repetition of an off topic or faulty argument does not strengthen it. You deny the possibility of seafaring in arctic waters under primitive conditions when the cultures and livelihood of at least two arctic peoples surviving from the ice age revolved around it? Do you ignore the existence of Unangan and Inuit? Please be serious.
By the way, where did you get the impression, that the Pacific was clogged with ice during the last glacial maximum? It wasn't. Due to the Beringia Land bridge the cold arctic Oyashio Current was shut down and the North Pacific Ocean was much warmer than the Atlantic Ocean. There was probably not even seasonal shelf ice. The water temperatures at the Beringia and Alaska Coast during the last glacial maximum were between 0 and -2°C. Much too warm for saltwater to freeze. Yes, 'fossil' water temperature can be detected from the oxygen isotope ratio cycles of fossil organisms with calcite shells. There are some old maps that show shelf ice in the North Pacific, but they are outdated. The Atlantic Ocean on the other hand was clogged with ice. The Gulf Stream was severely weakened and much slower at that time. It had not the impact it has now. Therefore there was extensive shelf ice that made it possible to walk from Doggerland to Greenland and North America over the shelf ice - or paddle along the rim.

BRIDGET,  I STRONGLY DISAGREE WITH YOUR ATTEMPT TO DEFINE THE RACE OF BLACK PEOPLE.    IN ONE OF YOUR COMMENTS YOU DEMONSTRATED TO ME THAT YOU BELIEVE THAT INDIGENOUS AUSTRALIANS (BLACK ABORIGINES), MELANESIAN’S (PAPUA NEW GUINEANS), NEGROIDS AND NEGRITOS ARE NOT ALL BLACK PEOPLE.   IT SEEM TO ME THAT YOU BELIEVE THAT BECAUSE BLACK “JARAWA”WHO ARE THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE OF THE INDIAN NICOBAR/ANDAMAN ISLANDS, AS WELL AS THE PHILIPPINE ATE’S (NEGRITO), AUSSIE BLACK ABORIGINE, PAPUA NEW GUINEA (PNG), THAILAND BLACK “MANI”, MALAYSIA BLACK ORANG ASLI DON’T SHARE THE SAME DNA AS THEIR BLACK AFRICAN BROTHERS/SISTERS, THAT THEY ARE NOT OF THE BLACK RACE he he he.   HELL, ALL BLACK AFRICANS DON’T EVEN HAVE THE SAME DNA WHICH IS WHY NIGERIANS, MALIANS, SENEGALESE, TOGOLESE WHO ALL LIVE IN CLOSE VICINITY CAN BE DIFFERENTIATED AMONG THEMSELVES.     SO THEREFORE, WOULDN’T IT MAKE LOGICAL SENSE THAT BLACK ASIATICS AND OCEANICS WOULD HAVE AN EVEN WIDER DNA DIFFERENCE THAN BLACK AFRICANS, ESPECIALLY SINCE IT IS ASSUMED THAT MANY OF THE OUT OF AFRICA BLACKS LEFT THERE MORE THAN 60,000 YEARS AGO he he he.   ONLY AN IDIOT WOULD BELIEVE THAT BLACK, 100% NEGROID, WOOLLY HAIRED PEOPLE WITH DISTINCT NEGROID PHENOTYPE ARE NOT BLACK, JUST BECAUSE THEY HAVE RESIDED THOUSANDS OF  MILES APART FOR APPROXIMATELY SIX (6) MILLENNIUMS (60,000 YEARS)   DON’T YOU KNOW THAT DNA DOES NOT DEFINE RACES OF PEOPLE, AND THAT DNA MUTATES ITSELF IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS WHICH PRODUCES “MORPHOLOGICAL PHENOTYPE’S”, AND THAT IS WHAT DEFINES RACES OF PEOPLE, AND NOT NO DAMN “DNA” ALONE.   IT IS MY BELIEF THAT THE PALEO/AMERICANS WERE INDEED BLACK WHICH YOU SORT OF AGREE, WHICH I AM VERY SURPRISED.  BUT YOU DID NOT SURPRISE ME WHEN YOU TRIED TO SEPARATE BLACK PEOPLE INTO ABORIGINE, MELANESIA,  NEGROID, AND NEGRITO CATEGORIES AS BEING DIFFERENT.    BY THE WAY, YES THEY ARE DIFFERENT BY THE FACT THAT THERE ARE DIFFERENCES IN ALL RACES OF PEOPLE.   PEOPLE IN THAILAND, CAMBODIA, LAOS, VIETNAM DON’T LOOK THE SAME AS JAPANESE, KOREANS, AND NORDIC WHITES DON’T LOOK THE SAME AS SOUTHERN EUROPEANS, AND THOSE LITTLE SMALL NATIVES OF HONDURAS WHO WEAR THE LITTLE SMALL DERBY’S, WEARS A POUCH OVER THE TOP OF THEIR BODIES AND SMOKES A PIPE, DON’T LOOK LIKE THE THE AMERICAN SO-CALL NATIVE RED MAN.   BUT FOR SOME RACIST REASON, IT APPEARS THAT BLACK PEOPLE HAVE TO ALL LOOK ALIKE IN ORDER TO BE CALLED BLACK BY RACIST PEOPLE WHO TRY TO COME ACROSS AS BEING FAIR MINDED AND EDUCATED, WHEN THEY POST SOME OF THE MOST DUMBEST  REMARKS, AND THINK THAT INTELLIGENT PEOPLE ARE TO JUST SIT AROUND AND APPROVE OF THEIR STUPIDITY.     AGAIN, I KNOW THAT BLACK OLMEC’S WERE NOT THE FIRST PEOPLE TO ARRIVE IN THE AMERICAS, BUT ALL SCIENTISTS AGREE THAT THEY WERE THE FIRST PEOPLE TO BUILD CIVILIZATIONS IN MESOAMERICA.    ALSO, I DO KNOW THAT BEYOND ANY DOUBT IN MY MIND AND OTHERS, THAT A BLACK OLMEC CARVED WITH AN WOOLLY AFRO WHICH IS ON DISPLAY IN THE NATIONAL MUSEUM IN TUXTECA, MEXICO IS A BLACK OLMEC MAN, AND THAT THERE ARE NO PSEUDO INTELLECTUAL “NONWHITE” PERSON CAN CONVINCE ME OF THEIR LIES AND DECEIT ABOUT WHAT IS BLACK AND THAT WHICH IS SOMETHING ELSE.     REMEMBER, THIS FACT, WHICH IS (1) DNA DOES NOT DEFINE  RACE (2) NEGROID, NEGRITO, MELANESIAN (PNG), AUSSIE INDIGENOUS BLACK PEOPLE ARE SIMPLY ALL “NEGROID PEOPLE” WHO DON’T LOOK EXACTLY ALIKE, SAME AS SWEDES DON’T LOOK LIKE ANCIENT GREEKS, TURKS, UBEKISTANI’S, IRANIANS, IRAQI’S, YET THEY ARE ALL CONSIDERED CAUCASOID’S.    ALSO DARK SOUTHEAST ASIANS AND LIGHTER SKIN NORTH ASIANS ARE ALL CLASSIFIED AS "MONGOLOIDS” NO MATTER THE DIFFERENCES.    SOME OF YOU PEOPLE ARE BECOMING SO RACIST AND IGNORANT WHEN IT COMES TO DISCUSSING BLACK CIVILIZATIONS, AND ALWAYS ATTEMPTING TO LIE ABOUT BLACK WORLD CONTRIBUTIONS, UNTIL IT IS MEANINGLESS TO KEEP RESPONDING TO THIS IGNORANCE...LATER

Charles Bowles

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