Native Americans traveling by boat

By Land or Sea? The Heated Debate on the Peopling of the Americas Continues…

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Charles Bowles, this article discusses the means of migration and transportation of the Asian/Beringian migration wave to the Americas. That's quite independent of skin color or ethnicity. It's topic is not if or when black people came to the Americas. So I'll get a little off topic too, since I do not like sloppy arguments and research.
I agree, that 'First Americans' is a misleading name for paleo indian people. I agree, that there is some evidence that there were earlier migration waves to America. The one that is assumed to have taken place at about 35000-45000 years BCA would have consisted of black people. There, happy now?
But ... there are even clues that Homo erectus/Neanderthals/a.s.o. were there before the earliest Homo sapiens. I wouldn't be surprised if Homo habilis once settled in America. They got to Flores and there are some locations in the Americas where very old pebble tools were found. The evidence for pre-sapiens migrations to America is scarce and it is not solid enough for an accepted hypothesis. That may change over the times - or not.
Luzia is one of the oldest American skeletons. It should be mentioned, that anthropologists described her as resembling Indigenous Australians, Melanesians, Negroids, or Negritos. Please, don't just pick the possibility you like and drop all others.
While Luzia might be an argument for an African contribution in the settlement of the Americas, Naia with her mutation, that was only typical for the Asian inhabitants of Beringia isn't.
Oh, there is a hypothesis, that Luzia's people migrated by boat via the Kurile Islands.
You can't use the Olmec stone heads while discussing ice age migrations. While it is true that an Egyptian/Nubian influence is possible or even likely and the culture was the first Mesoamerican urban civilization, it is a bronze age culture not older than 1600–1500 BCE - much too young to serve in an argument of 'who was first'.
Personally, I don't think that kind of argument has any merit. While of some scientific interest, it does not matter in the long run. It is much more important which peoples had the most cultural and genetic impact.

Let's get on topic again: Transport during ice age migration to America. The repetition of an off topic or faulty argument does not strengthen it. You deny the possibility of seafaring in arctic waters under primitive conditions when the cultures and livelihood of at least two arctic peoples surviving from the ice age revolved around it? Do you ignore the existence of Unangan and Inuit? Please be serious.
By the way, where did you get the impression, that the Pacific was clogged with ice during the last glacial maximum? It wasn't. Due to the Beringia Land bridge the cold arctic Oyashio Current was shut down and the North Pacific Ocean was much warmer than the Atlantic Ocean. There was probably not even seasonal shelf ice. The water temperatures at the Beringia and Alaska Coast during the last glacial maximum were between 0 and -2°C. Much too warm for saltwater to freeze. Yes, 'fossil' water temperature can be detected from the oxygen isotope ratio cycles of fossil organisms with calcite shells. There are some old maps that show shelf ice in the North Pacific, but they are outdated. The Atlantic Ocean on the other hand was clogged with ice. The Gulf Stream was severely weakened and much slower at that time. It had not the impact it has now. Therefore there was extensive shelf ice that made it possible to walk from Doggerland to Greenland and North America over the shelf ice - or paddle along the rim.

BRIDGET,  I STRONGLY DISAGREE WITH YOUR ATTEMPT TO DEFINE THE RACE OF BLACK PEOPLE.    IN ONE OF YOUR COMMENTS YOU DEMONSTRATED TO ME THAT YOU BELIEVE THAT INDIGENOUS AUSTRALIANS (BLACK ABORIGINES), MELANESIAN’S (PAPUA NEW GUINEANS), NEGROIDS AND NEGRITOS ARE NOT ALL BLACK PEOPLE.   IT SEEM TO ME THAT YOU BELIEVE THAT BECAUSE BLACK “JARAWA”WHO ARE THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE OF THE INDIAN NICOBAR/ANDAMAN ISLANDS, AS WELL AS THE PHILIPPINE ATE’S (NEGRITO), AUSSIE BLACK ABORIGINE, PAPUA NEW GUINEA (PNG), THAILAND BLACK “MANI”, MALAYSIA BLACK ORANG ASLI DON’T SHARE THE SAME DNA AS THEIR BLACK AFRICAN BROTHERS/SISTERS, THAT THEY ARE NOT OF THE BLACK RACE he he he.   HELL, ALL BLACK AFRICANS DON’T EVEN HAVE THE SAME DNA WHICH IS WHY NIGERIANS, MALIANS, SENEGALESE, TOGOLESE WHO ALL LIVE IN CLOSE VICINITY CAN BE DIFFERENTIATED AMONG THEMSELVES.     SO THEREFORE, WOULDN’T IT MAKE LOGICAL SENSE THAT BLACK ASIATICS AND OCEANICS WOULD HAVE AN EVEN WIDER DNA DIFFERENCE THAN BLACK AFRICANS, ESPECIALLY SINCE IT IS ASSUMED THAT MANY OF THE OUT OF AFRICA BLACKS LEFT THERE MORE THAN 60,000 YEARS AGO he he he.   ONLY AN IDIOT WOULD BELIEVE THAT BLACK, 100% NEGROID, WOOLLY HAIRED PEOPLE WITH DISTINCT NEGROID PHENOTYPE ARE NOT BLACK, JUST BECAUSE THEY HAVE RESIDED THOUSANDS OF  MILES APART FOR APPROXIMATELY SIX (6) MILLENNIUMS (60,000 YEARS)   DON’T YOU KNOW THAT DNA DOES NOT DEFINE RACES OF PEOPLE, AND THAT DNA MUTATES ITSELF IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS WHICH PRODUCES “MORPHOLOGICAL PHENOTYPE’S”, AND THAT IS WHAT DEFINES RACES OF PEOPLE, AND NOT NO DAMN “DNA” ALONE.   IT IS MY BELIEF THAT THE PALEO/AMERICANS WERE INDEED BLACK WHICH YOU SORT OF AGREE, WHICH I AM VERY SURPRISED.  BUT YOU DID NOT SURPRISE ME WHEN YOU TRIED TO SEPARATE BLACK PEOPLE INTO ABORIGINE, MELANESIA,  NEGROID, AND NEGRITO CATEGORIES AS BEING DIFFERENT.    BY THE WAY, YES THEY ARE DIFFERENT BY THE FACT THAT THERE ARE DIFFERENCES IN ALL RACES OF PEOPLE.   PEOPLE IN THAILAND, CAMBODIA, LAOS, VIETNAM DON’T LOOK THE SAME AS JAPANESE, KOREANS, AND NORDIC WHITES DON’T LOOK THE SAME AS SOUTHERN EUROPEANS, AND THOSE LITTLE SMALL NATIVES OF HONDURAS WHO WEAR THE LITTLE SMALL DERBY’S, WEARS A POUCH OVER THE TOP OF THEIR BODIES AND SMOKES A PIPE, DON’T LOOK LIKE THE THE AMERICAN SO-CALL NATIVE RED MAN.   BUT FOR SOME RACIST REASON, IT APPEARS THAT BLACK PEOPLE HAVE TO ALL LOOK ALIKE IN ORDER TO BE CALLED BLACK BY RACIST PEOPLE WHO TRY TO COME ACROSS AS BEING FAIR MINDED AND EDUCATED, WHEN THEY POST SOME OF THE MOST DUMBEST  REMARKS, AND THINK THAT INTELLIGENT PEOPLE ARE TO JUST SIT AROUND AND APPROVE OF THEIR STUPIDITY.     AGAIN, I KNOW THAT BLACK OLMEC’S WERE NOT THE FIRST PEOPLE TO ARRIVE IN THE AMERICAS, BUT ALL SCIENTISTS AGREE THAT THEY WERE THE FIRST PEOPLE TO BUILD CIVILIZATIONS IN MESOAMERICA.    ALSO, I DO KNOW THAT BEYOND ANY DOUBT IN MY MIND AND OTHERS, THAT A BLACK OLMEC CARVED WITH AN WOOLLY AFRO WHICH IS ON DISPLAY IN THE NATIONAL MUSEUM IN TUXTECA, MEXICO IS A BLACK OLMEC MAN, AND THAT THERE ARE NO PSEUDO INTELLECTUAL “NONWHITE” PERSON CAN CONVINCE ME OF THEIR LIES AND DECEIT ABOUT WHAT IS BLACK AND THAT WHICH IS SOMETHING ELSE.     REMEMBER, THIS FACT, WHICH IS (1) DNA DOES NOT DEFINE  RACE (2) NEGROID, NEGRITO, MELANESIAN (PNG), AUSSIE INDIGENOUS BLACK PEOPLE ARE SIMPLY ALL “NEGROID PEOPLE” WHO DON’T LOOK EXACTLY ALIKE, SAME AS SWEDES DON’T LOOK LIKE ANCIENT GREEKS, TURKS, UBEKISTANI’S, IRANIANS, IRAQI’S, YET THEY ARE ALL CONSIDERED CAUCASOID’S.    ALSO DARK SOUTHEAST ASIANS AND LIGHTER SKIN NORTH ASIANS ARE ALL CLASSIFIED AS "MONGOLOIDS” NO MATTER THE DIFFERENCES.    SOME OF YOU PEOPLE ARE BECOMING SO RACIST AND IGNORANT WHEN IT COMES TO DISCUSSING BLACK CIVILIZATIONS, AND ALWAYS ATTEMPTING TO LIE ABOUT BLACK WORLD CONTRIBUTIONS, UNTIL IT IS MEANINGLESS TO KEEP RESPONDING TO THIS IGNORANCE...LATER

Charles Bowles

ALL EVIDENCE SHOWS BEYOND ANY DOUBT THAT THE FIRST AMERICANS WERE INDEED BLACK PEOPLE.  LUZIA, AND NAIA WERE BOTH CLASSIFIED AS NEGROID BY SOME OF THE WORLDS TOP ANTHROPOLOGISTS/ARCHAEOLOGISTS, AND THEIR SKELETAL REMAINS DATE BACK  TO THE PERIOD OF THE “ICE AGE” WHEN TRAVEL WAS UNVIABLE FROM EUROPE.ASIA TO THE AMERICAS.   THE MANY OLMEC NEGROID FACIAL SCULPTURES THAT EXISTS IN MANY PARTS OF MEXICO, AND MANY OTHER ARTIFACTS OF NEGROID PEOPLE WITH AFRO, AND AFRICAN CORNROW AND BRAIDED HAIR, AS WELL AS WEST AFRICAN FACIAL SCARIFICATIONS IN THEIR TERRACOTTA SCULPTURED FORM LEAVES ME WITH NO DOUBT THAT THE FIRST AMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS WERE OF PURE 100% NEGROID RACIAL DESCENT.   FOOLS CAN ARGUE,AND INTELLIGENT PEOPLE CAN LISTEN, BUT THAT KIND OF RHETORIC WILL NEVER CHANGE THE FACTS ABOUT WHAT EXISTS TODAY IN ANTHROPOLOGICAL/ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENTIFIC CIRCLES…..LATER

Charles Bowles

It was not impossible to travel in a small boat from Asia to America during an ice age.
The first kind of seafaring followed the coasts and for a maritime people adapted to an arctic environment the shelf ice's rim was as good as a coast. The Inuit hunted in arctic waters, the Unangan did as well, both with seaworthy boats covering hundreds of kilometers. They did it for thousands of years using a stoneage technology.
Since the Unangan and Inuit were able to pull off such feats, there is no reason to assume, that the cold adapted ancient Paleoindians weren't. Looking at the distribution of the R1b Haplogroup in Europe and Northamerica there is even some evidence, that ancient european people living in Doggerland did the same and paddled merrily along the shelf ice's rim to North America.
I won't rule out an early passage across the Atlantic, but that didn't leave much genetic evidence for sure.

I think the least likely option is that they all came entirely by either land or sea, more likely they used both routes.

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