This clay tablet in inscribed with one part of the Epic of Gilgamesh. It was most likely stolen from a historical site before it was sold to a museum in Iraq

Previously Unknown Lines to the Epic of Gilgamesh discovered in Stolen Cuneiform Tablet

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An Assyriologist at the University of London (UCL) has discovered that a stolen clay tablet inscribed with ancient cuneiform text that was recently acquired by a museum in Iraq, contains 20 previously unknown lines to the epic story of Gilgamesh, the oldest known epic poem and widely regarded as the first great work of literature ever created.  The discovery provides new details about Gilgamesh, king of Uruk, and Enkidu, a wild man created by the gods to rid Gilgamesh of his arrogance, as they travel to the Cedar Forest, home of the gods, to defeat the monstrous giant Humbaba.

Live Science reports that the tablet, which measures 11 cm x 9.5 cm, was purchased in 2011 by the Sulaymaniayh Museum in Slemani, Iraq, from a known smuggler of Mesopotamian antiquities. While such a move is controversial, in that it feeds the black market in antiquities dealing, the museum argues that it is the only way to regain some of the valuable artifacts that have been looted from historical sites in Iraq.

While the exact provenance of the tablet is unknown, the style of script and the circumstances of acquisition, lead experts to believe it was unearthed at a Babylonian site, and may date back ask far as the Old Babylonian period (2003 – 1595 BC).

When the text was translated by Farouk Al-Rawi, a professor in the Department of Languages and Cultures of the Near and Middle East at UCL, with the help of Andrew George, associate dean of languages and culture at UCL, the pair soon discovered that it added fascinating new details to the fifth tablet in the Epic of Gilgamesh.

Statue of Gilgamesh with a possible representation of Enkidu, from the palace of Sargon II at Dur Sharrukin (now Khorsabad, near Mossul), 713-706 BC.

Statue of Gilgamesh with a possible representation of Enkidu, from the palace of Sargon II at Dur Sharrukin (now Khorsabad, near Mossul), 713-706 BC. ( Wikipedia)

A new perspective on the Cedar Forest

The Cedar Forest is the glorious realm of the gods of Mesopotamian mythology, described in Tablets 4 – 6 of the Epic of Gilgamesh.  The forest, guarded by the demigod Humbaba, was generally thought to be a quiet and reflective place. However, the new section of Tablet 5 translated by Al-Rawi offers an entirely different perspective.

“Perhaps more surprising is the revelation that the Cedar Forest was, in the Babylonian literary imagination, a dense jungle inhabited by exotic and noisy fauna. The chatter of monkeys, chorus of cicada, and squawking of many kinds of birds formed a symphony (or cacophony) that daily entertained the forest’s guardian, Humbaba,” writes Al-Rawi and George in their paper ‘ Back to the Cedar Forest: The Beginning and End of Tablet V of the Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh’ . “Humbaba emerges not as a barbarian ogre and but as a foreign ruler entertained with music at court in the manner of Babylonian kings, but music of a more exotic kind, played by a band of equally exotic musicians”

The newly translated text reads:

17 [Through] all the forest a bird began to sing:

18 […] were answering one another, a constant din was the noise,

19 [A solitary(?)] tree-cricket set off a noisy chorus,

20 […] were singing a song, making the … pipe loud.

21 A wood pigeon was moaning, a turtle dove calling in answer.

22 [At the call of] the stork, the forest exults,

23 [at the cry of] the francolin, the forest exults in plenty.

24 [Monkey mothers] sing aloud, a youngster monkey shrieks:

25 [like a band(?)] of musicians and drummers(?),

26 daily they bash out a rhythm in the presence of Ḫumbaba.

From the newly translated text, Al-Rawi and George .

Early translators of the Epic assumed that the "Cedar Forest" refers to the Lebanon Cedars. A Cedar Forest in Lebanon

Early translators of the Epic assumed that the "Cedar Forest" refers to the Lebanon Cedars. A Cedar Forest in Lebanon ( Wikipedia)

The remorse of Enkidu

The newly discovered verse also reveals new details about the inner conflict experienced by Enkidu as he and Gilgamesh kill Humbaba, guardian of the Cedar Forest and a childhood friend of Enkidu.

After slaughtering Humbaba and destroying the Cedar Forest, cutting down its trees and ripping down branches, Enkidu expresses remorse for his actions.

“Their reaction after the event is now tinged with a hint of guilty conscience,” write Al-Rawi and George in their paper. “The anxiety about offending the gods seems to a modern reader compounded by ecological regret…. This newly recovered speech of Enkidu adds to the impression that, to the poets’ minds, the destruction of Humbaba and his trees was morally wrong.”

302 [Enkidu] opened his mouth to speak, saying to Gilgameš:


I read this in highschool. Very intersting but I prefered the greek writings more.


I especially like this article, thanks April. I've read around 10 different translations of the story and the flattening of the forest is alike Tunguska. Made my day in more than one way. Plus a link to the 22 page paper! Now I just need time to read it.

An intriguing addition to the canon of versions. I hope very much that other bits come to light.

A goat might find it boring, but I like is and find it significant. I have learned a lot from it about how to reject a goddess, how to kill the Bull of Heaven and how to look after the secret of eternal life. But if it is lost, not to whinge about it.

In long ago past days people were of godly sensibility towards nature and its living inhabitants. At the time of giants people were spiritual giants as well.
That is why it is said in the Bible that the giants / the nephilims were the old and the renown. The Original pronunciation of Gilgamesh as per the Epique is Bulgamush meaning Bulgarian man. In the Qumran chronicles Bulgamush was depicted as a giant. The sage Utnapishtim as is named Noah in the epique of Gilgamesh has a Bulgarian name as well. Otnapistim means Coming Out of Calamity. Utnapistim is the One who came out of the flooded Black sea in 5504 BC.

April, 20 previously unknown and recovered lines to the epic is unprecedented.


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