A Paracas elongated skull and an artist’s impression based on a digital reconstruction.

New DNA Testing on 2,000-Year-Old Elongated Paracas Skulls Changes Known History

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The elongated skulls of Paracas in Peru caused a stir in 2014 when a geneticist that carried out preliminary DNA testing reported that they have mitochondrial DNA “with mutations unknown in any human, primate, or animal known so far”. Now a second round of DNA testing has been completed and the results are just as controversial – the skulls tested, which date back as far as 2,000 years, were shown to have European and Middle Eastern Origin. These surprising results change the known history about how the Americas were populated.

Paracas is a desert peninsula located within Pisco Province on the south coast of Peru.  It is here where Peruvian archaeologist, Julio Tello, made an amazing discovery in 1928 – a massive and elaborate graveyard containing tombs filled with the remains of individuals with the largest elongated skulls found anywhere in the world. These have come to be known as the ‘ Paracas skulls ’. In total, Tello found more than 300 of these elongated skulls, some of which date back around 3,000 years.

Elongated skulls on display at Museo Regional de Ica in the city of Ica in Peru

Elongated skulls on display at Museo Regional de Ica in the city of Ica in Peru ( public domain )

Strange Features of the Paracas Skulls

It is well-known that most cases of skull elongation are the result of cranial deformation, head flattening, or head binding, in which the skull is intentionally deformed by applying force over a long period of time. It is usually achieved by binding the head between two pieces of wood, or binding in cloth. However, while cranial deformation changes the shape of the skull, it does not alter other features that are characteristic of a regular human skull.

In a recent interview with Ancient Origins, author and researcher LA Marzulli describes how some of the Paracas skulls are different to ordinary human skulls:

“There is a possibility that it might have been cradle headboarded, but the reason why I don’t think so is because the position of the foramen magnum is back towards the rear of the skull. A normal foramen magnum would be closer to the jaw line…”

LA Marzulli points to the position of the foramen magnum in a Paracas skull which is also the point at which they drilled in order to extract bone powder for DNA testing.

LA Marzulli points to the position of the foramen magnum in a Paracas skull which is also the point at which they drilled in order to extract bone powder for DNA testing.

Marzulli explained that an archaeologist has written a paper about his study of the position of the foramen magnum in over 1000 skulls. “He states that the Paracas skulls, the position of the foramen magnum is completely different than a normal human being, it is also smaller, which lends itself to our theory that this is not cradle headboarding, this is genetic.”

In addition, Marzulli described how some of the Paracas skulls have a very pronounced zygomatic arch (cheek bone), different eye sockets and no sagittal suture, which is a connective tissue joint between the two parietal bones of the skull.

The pronounced cheek bones can be seen in artist Marcia Moore’s interpretation of how the Paracas people looked based on a digital reconstruction from the skulls.

The pronounced cheek bones can be seen in artist Marcia Moore’s interpretation of how the Paracas people looked based on a digital reconstruction from the skulls. Marcia Moore  / Ciamar Studio

In a normal human skull, there should be a suture which goes from the frontal plate … clear over the dome of the skull separating the parietal plates - the two separate plates – and connecting with the occipital plate in the rear,” said Marzulli. “We see many skulls in Paracas that are completely devoid of a sagittal suture.

There is a disease known as craniosynostosis, which results in the fusing together of the two parietal plates, however, Marzulli said there is no evidence of this disease in the Paracas skulls.

The sagittal suture, highlighted in red, separates the two parietal plates

The sagittal suture, highlighted in red, separates the two parietal plates ( public domain )

LA Marzulli shows the top of one of the Paracas skulls, which has no sagittal suture.

LA Marzulli shows the top of one of the Paracas skulls, which has no sagittal suture.

DNA Testing

The late Sr. Juan Navarro, owner and director of the Museo Arqueologico Paracas, which houses a collection of 35 of the Paracas skulls, allowed the taking of samples from three of the elongated skulls for DNA testing, including one infant. Another sample was obtained from a Peruvian skull that had been in the US for 75 years. One of the skulls was dated to around 2,000 years old, while another was 800 years old.

The samples consisted of hair and bone powder, which was extracted by drilling deeply into the foramen magnum. This process, Marzulli explained, is to reduce the risk of contamination. In addition, full protective clothing was worn.

The samples were then sent to three separate labs for testing – one in Canada, and two in the United States. The geneticists were only told that the samples came from an ancient mummy, so as not to create any preconceived ideas.  

Comments

Scythians who were also known as “Paleo/Slavic” people who lived on both sides of the Caucasus mountains, were indeed “UNCIVILIZED” nomadic blond hair, blue eyed people.   They had no permanent communities, nor the cognitive abilities to provide for their primary needs.  In other words they were raiders of the civilized communities where security was scarce.  These uncivilized pale white skin, blue eyed blond haired people would rob civilized communities of livestock, jewelry, handicrafts such as leather saddles, because they did not have the cognitive skills to produce such necessary items, including growing their own agriculture according to historical documents.   These uncivilized Scythian “Paleo/Slavics” probably could not find themselves too far away from mountain caves, less only make a journey to the Americas he he he….According to Persian history, during the time of King Darius approximately 500 BCE the uncivilized white blue eyed savages had raided “CIVILIZED COMMUNITIES” so much until King Darius himself chased these vermits from the Caucasus area to about 600 – 1000 miles away into Eastern Europe (sort of like chasing away present day burglars to secure your own property.   It was documented that there was never a battle due to the fact that the Scythians kept running further away as Darius continued his chase.  After the chase, it was recorded that King Darius returned back to Persia, and the white blue eyed Scythian uncivilized former “Caucasus Mountain Dwellers” never returned, so the chasing plan worked out well….Further historical documents indicate that these uncivilized slow learning Scythians finally began to settle down, practice the agricultural, livestock, and handicraft skills of the civilized communities which they had learned so much from, because of their earlier contacts…….There is no documented history of uncivilized Scythians ever practicing the African cranial art of “Lipombo” which had been practiced on African leaders for millenniums among Black Egyptians, and is still practiced today by the Mengbetu tribe of the Congo...

Charles Bowles

The Parthians and Sythians were nomadic peoples from the central Asian horse culture. They devised magnificent gold jewelry, found as artifacts in archaeological sites. The horses were obtained by the Arabs, and offspring of the Arab horses were later taken to England where they became the basis of the Thoroughbred breed. Babur from the Ferghana region of Central Asia relocated to Afghanistan and later went on to India, where he established the Mughal Dynasty. The Ferghana Valley is still the heart of the horse culture, represented by the horse breed, known at present as the Akhal-Teke breed. I am at loss as to why Westerners consider horse/nomadic cultures to be primitive and uncivilized. This misconception lead to devastating attacks against the Native American tribes of North America. It has tainted modern-day dealings with the Middle Eastern tribes, with many destructive outcomes. But actually this tribal existence now fits the new environmentally-friendly lifestyle to a tee, while the "advanced" urban cultures have become the villains. It is time to re-examine the old biases and readjust the misperceptions.

Thank you for that reasoned perspective. Sara. Very well put. We all tend to suffer from one biased outlook or another; and it is refreshing to hear from someone seeking to move beyond such constraints

“uncivilized white blue eyed savages” – ah let me guess - you do NOT have white skin & blue eyes – thought so – funny how that works !  Your reverse Germanic prejudice is hilarious to read ! Good grief what is your problem – you read all history with this view in mind to prove Hitler wrong ???  Poor person – that kind of deep loathing must make you very, very insecure. Well at least it makes a change from the opposite view of pushing the blonde, blue-eyed ‘thingy’  that so many Europeans seem unable to put down ! We humans are a motly crew of all colors & eye-colors, mainly we ALL understand what we really admire in humanity & it has nothing to do with the color of your hair or eyes  – it is called CHARACTER - of which there are samples in every peoples on this planet – and I seriously suspect you are lacking a little in that streak of human ‘intelligence’ !!!!

Veronica

I have been following your agenda here and it has become obvious that it is based on extreme racial hatred. Your efforts here point to the premise that the Black Race should be recognized not as equal, but as intellectually superior over the White Race and the White Race doesn't deserve to exist. Two wrongs will never make a right.

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