A Paracas elongated skull and an artist’s impression based on a digital reconstruction.

New DNA Testing on 2,000-Year-Old Elongated Paracas Skulls Changes Known History

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The elongated skulls of Paracas in Peru caused a stir in 2014 when a geneticist that carried out preliminary DNA testing reported that they have mitochondrial DNA “with mutations unknown in any human, primate, or animal known so far”. Now a second round of DNA testing has been completed and the results are just as controversial – the skulls tested, which date back as far as 2,000 years, were shown to have European and Middle Eastern Origin. These surprising results change the known history about how the Americas were populated.

Paracas is a desert peninsula located within Pisco Province on the south coast of Peru.  It is here where Peruvian archaeologist, Julio Tello, made an amazing discovery in 1928 – a massive and elaborate graveyard containing tombs filled with the remains of individuals with the largest elongated skulls found anywhere in the world. These have come to be known as the ‘ Paracas skulls ’. In total, Tello found more than 300 of these elongated skulls, some of which date back around 3,000 years.

Elongated skulls on display at Museo Regional de Ica in the city of Ica in Peru

Elongated skulls on display at Museo Regional de Ica in the city of Ica in Peru ( public domain )

Strange Features of the Paracas Skulls

It is well-known that most cases of skull elongation are the result of cranial deformation, head flattening, or head binding, in which the skull is intentionally deformed by applying force over a long period of time. It is usually achieved by binding the head between two pieces of wood, or binding in cloth. However, while cranial deformation changes the shape of the skull, it does not alter other features that are characteristic of a regular human skull.

In a recent interview with Ancient Origins, author and researcher LA Marzulli describes how some of the Paracas skulls are different to ordinary human skulls:

“There is a possibility that it might have been cradle headboarded, but the reason why I don’t think so is because the position of the foramen magnum is back towards the rear of the skull. A normal foramen magnum would be closer to the jaw line…”

LA Marzulli points to the position of the foramen magnum in a Paracas skull which is also the point at which they drilled in order to extract bone powder for DNA testing.

LA Marzulli points to the position of the foramen magnum in a Paracas skull which is also the point at which they drilled in order to extract bone powder for DNA testing.

Marzulli explained that an archaeologist has written a paper about his study of the position of the foramen magnum in over 1000 skulls. “He states that the Paracas skulls, the position of the foramen magnum is completely different than a normal human being, it is also smaller, which lends itself to our theory that this is not cradle headboarding, this is genetic.”

In addition, Marzulli described how some of the Paracas skulls have a very pronounced zygomatic arch (cheek bone), different eye sockets and no sagittal suture, which is a connective tissue joint between the two parietal bones of the skull.

The pronounced cheek bones can be seen in artist Marcia Moore’s interpretation of how the Paracas people looked based on a digital reconstruction from the skulls.

The pronounced cheek bones can be seen in artist Marcia Moore’s interpretation of how the Paracas people looked based on a digital reconstruction from the skulls. Marcia Moore  / Ciamar Studio

In a normal human skull, there should be a suture which goes from the frontal plate … clear over the dome of the skull separating the parietal plates - the two separate plates – and connecting with the occipital plate in the rear,” said Marzulli. “We see many skulls in Paracas that are completely devoid of a sagittal suture.

There is a disease known as craniosynostosis, which results in the fusing together of the two parietal plates, however, Marzulli said there is no evidence of this disease in the Paracas skulls.

The sagittal suture, highlighted in red, separates the two parietal plates

The sagittal suture, highlighted in red, separates the two parietal plates ( public domain )

LA Marzulli shows the top of one of the Paracas skulls, which has no sagittal suture.

LA Marzulli shows the top of one of the Paracas skulls, which has no sagittal suture.

DNA Testing

The late Sr. Juan Navarro, owner and director of the Museo Arqueologico Paracas, which houses a collection of 35 of the Paracas skulls, allowed the taking of samples from three of the elongated skulls for DNA testing, including one infant. Another sample was obtained from a Peruvian skull that had been in the US for 75 years. One of the skulls was dated to around 2,000 years old, while another was 800 years old.

The samples consisted of hair and bone powder, which was extracted by drilling deeply into the foramen magnum. This process, Marzulli explained, is to reduce the risk of contamination. In addition, full protective clothing was worn.

The samples were then sent to three separate labs for testing – one in Canada, and two in the United States. The geneticists were only told that the samples came from an ancient mummy, so as not to create any preconceived ideas.  


You don't believe in aliens? Is it impossible for other life forms to originate from other worlds in this universe that holds so many stars.

She did not say that "aliens" don't exist; she said she wasn't a believer in alien hybrids ...

I agree entirely with your comments. Although LM's research links the Nephilim to aliens, that is not necessarily the case.

Andrew Collins, amongst others, has amassed a mass of information to show that the Nephilim, Annunaki and other groups identified as 'fallen angels' came from exactly the same region as the do the haplogroups discovered in these DNA tests. Moreover, he argues that these people were long-headed, feather-clad shamans, who may have been Cro-Magnon/Neanderthal hybrids.

My own research into Andean mythography and certain anomalous artefacts has come to exactly the same conclusion, but by an entirely different route. (Details to be revealed in my forthcoming book). We live in exciting times! Thanks for the link - which I shall study with great interest.

Carol, muchas gracias, thank for sharing your insight on this. I am from (and now in) Bolivia. My mother´s last name, Uria, although Basque, is a biblical name that appears several times in the Old testament and the Torah. One of those Uriahs was the Hittite Heroe of King David that the latter sent to the fiercest battle so that he dies to take his wife Bathsheba (the mother of King Solomon). Uriah in Hurrian Ariya means "ruler" (according to p.1107of the Harpers´Bible Dictionary (1985)). And this is so interesting to me because please note that (according to Robert Antonio, from the World History Center), in the cuneiform Hittite texts, hurlili or language of the Hurrians is used, hence it is highly probable that Uriah from the Hurrians meant the same as for the Hittites: ruler. In the interesting information that you shared about the origin of that double headed bird symbol (found in Paracas, that thanks to the efforts like that of our colleague Brien Foerster, were people with European and Middle Eastern origin), it seems that it was the symbol of the ruler -Uriah-. And more support for this finding of the DNA test2, is the fact that the "Fuente Magna" (the stone bowl found in the shores of Lake Titicaca in the Bolivian side and that is housed in the "Museo del Oro" in my native city of La Paz), has all these symbols that were interpreted using proto-Sumerian language. And it really amazes me the information that you shared because in my main collage (that has been compared to the Guernica of Picasso), "Homage to the Universe" the main symbol is the bird wings I used, to represent freedom; of course it came from my artistic imagination. And still, it could be that it also came from my morphogenetic field (yes, here I am using the work of Dr. Rupert Sheldrake): the bird symbol perhaps came from the two headed bird of the ruler, the Uriah. Or perhaps also from what for Sumerians meant Marduk/Nibiru. And the latter takes me to the original purpose of the DNA test2, and here Leonardo d Vinci gabe me the clue. He used to write backwards in his personal notes. So he wrote the name Urijah backwards and gives us "hajiru" but if you check this carefully it will give us, "nibiru" that if pronounced with English phonetics (this I noted in a work I wrote in 1999, in reference to the late Zechariah Sitchin´s work), will give us, "naybayru" that sounds so much like "aymaru" or aymara the oldest language certainly in the Blivian Andes; and much more, if also with English phonjetics you pronounce the Sumerian "Enki" (who was according to Sumerian myth the one that made the first Adam (using a homos erectus from Earth, yet putting his genes and intelligence but not his longevity); well, Enki, pronounced that way, wil give us, "Inkay", and in the Andean mythology, the Incas came from the Aymaras, the Incas being the rulers or in Hurrian Ariya (and hence very likely in Hittite language too), the rulers, whose symbol thanks to you now I do know that was the two headed bird. And from these my curiosity of the relationship of the "Ur-ias" (the citizens) from Sumer (as Uriah Chalida was the capital of the Mesopotamian Sumer) and the "Urus" of Bolivia and Peru (so subjugated by the Aymaras and Incas and who to keep their freedom would weave their floating islands,and who did not consider themselves humans, but "water folks"): is fueled again! Thanks again y muchos.saludos.

Nice to réad wise comments. I hope other DNA analyses will be done on other inca mummies in the future. And other mummies in the world as in easter island. We need facts.


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