Rare gold sun disc from Stonehenge era

Rare gold sun disc from Stonehenge era publicly revealed for the first time to mark solstice

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To mark this year’s summer solstice in the northern hemisphere, Wiltshire Museum in England will be publicly revealing for the first time an early Bronze Age sun disc that was crafted soon after the sarsen stones were put in position at Stonehenge. The rare, 4,400-year-old golden relic was found in a burial mound at Monkton Farleigh, just over 20 miles from Stonehenge.

The sun disc was first unearthed in 1947 during excavations of the burial mound, which also yielded a pottery beaker, flint arrowheads and the remains of an adult male. Wiltshire Museum reports that the landowner kept possession of the precious artifact until recently, when he decided to hand it over to the Museum. It has now been cleaned and prepared for its first ever display in the Museum to mark this year’s mid-summer solstice.

“This is one of only 6 finds of sun-discs discovered and is one of the earliest metal objects found in Britain,” Wiltshire Museum reports in their press release. “It was made in about 2,400 BC, soon after the sarsen stones were put up at Stonehenge, and is thought to represent the sun.”

The sun disc, only the size of a small coin, consists of an embossed sheet of gold with an encircled cross in the center. Two holes suggest that the disc may have been sewn onto a piece of clothing or a head-dress.

The sun disc is not the only example of Stonehenge era gold craftsmanship. In 1808, archaeologist William Cunnington discovered what has become known as the crown jewels of the 'King of Stonehenge'. They were found within a large Bronze Age burial mound just ½ mile from Stonehenge, known today as Bush Barrow. Within the 4,000-year-old barrow, Cunnington found ornate jeweler, a gold lozenge that fastened his cloak, and an intricately decorated dagger.

The golden lozenge found in the Bush Barrow

The golden lozenge found in the Bush Barrow ( Wikimedia Commons )

The precision and accuracy displayed by the craftsmanship of the golden lozenge demonstrates both a sophisticated tool kit and a sound knowledge of geometric form, so much so that David Dawson, director of Wiltshire Museum, described the lozenge as "the work of the gods". The purpose of the golden lozenge remains a mystery, although some believe it was an astronomical instrument.

The golden handle of the dagger found in the barrow also displayed astounding gold-working skill.  “The very finest gold work involved the making and positioning of literally tens of thousands of tiny individually-made components, each around a millimeter long and around a fifth of a millimeter wide,” said Dawson. “We estimate that the entire operation – wire manufacture, stud-making, hole-making, resin pasting and stud positioning – would have taken at least 2500 hours to complete,” he added.

Detail of the decoration of the dagger handle, shown next to a sewing needle for scale. The studs were placed in straight lines and the heads overlapped each other like fish scales.

Detail of the decoration of the dagger handle, shown next to a sewing needle for scale. The studs were placed in straight lines and the heads overlapped each other like fish scales. Credit: University of Birmingham and David Bukach

The sun disc will now join the remainder of the Bronze Age gold relics from around Stonehenge in Wiltshire Museum.

Featured image: The gold sun disc dates from the time of Stonehenge. Photo courtesy of Wiltshire Museum.

By April Holloway

Comments

Hello April, This news is remarkable. Love the article

I count 15 marks on quarter circle for total 60 for full circle - interesting given our clocks today uses 60. 7 on side of cross, arguably 15 for entire straight segment. Symbolism?

Surprised not addressed on article.

>We estimate that the entire operation – wire manufacture, stud-making, hole-making, resin pasting and stud positioning – would have taken at least 2500 hours to complete,

Sorry but NO - your estimation is WAY off
these people were not savages .. the fish scale pattern could be done very rapidly with a "candy apple" type approach - i have done this my self in "high school " metal work
i think you vastly underestimate the ingenuity of ancient people

Justbod's picture

Such amazingly beautiful artefacts which help to make real the people associated with the Stonehenge monuments, but also add to the mystery.

Found your idea interesting JRobertAllen.

Thanks for the article April!

 

Sculptures, carvings & artwork inspired by a love of history & nature: www.justbod.co.uk

 

 

 
JRobertAllen's picture

At first to the untrained eye, the disk looks like a button or decoration, but I think it’s not.

Please continue reading for my surprising solution o this mystery.

Run a wool or horse hair thread though the eyelets of the disk so its level when bobbed from the hand.

Hold the sting and disk over the lozenge and gently lower it until it starts to move.

You have a kind of compass / divining rod, and perhaps even the ability to pin point ley lines.

I will leave the rest up to you to figure out.

Jeromy 

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The Kalash (known also as the Kalasha) are an indigenous people living in what is today Pakistan. Although Pakistan is an Islamic Republic, with more than 95% of its population being adherents of Islam, the Kalash hold on to their own religious beliefs, along with their own identity, way of life, and language.

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