Neanderthals were NOT a sub-species of modern humans

Researchers claim Neanderthals were NOT a sub-species of modern humans

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Researchers have identified new evidence supporting the growing belief that Neanderthals were a distinct species separate from modern humans (Homo sapiens), and not a subspecies of modern humans. The study also found that the Neanderthal nasal complex was not adaptively inferior to that of modern humans, and that the Neanderthals' extinction was likely due to competition from modern humans and not an inability of the Neanderthal nose to process a colder and drier climate, as has been previously suggested.

Samuel Márquez, PhD, associate professor and co-discipline director of gross anatomy in SUNY Downstate's Department of Cell Biology, and his team of specialists published their findings on the Neanderthal nasal complex in the November issue of The Anatomical Record .

They argue that studies of the Neanderthal nose, which have spanned over a century and a half, have been approaching this anatomical enigma from the wrong perspective. Previous work has compared Neanderthal nasal dimensions to modern human populations such as the Inuit and modern Europeans, whose nasal complexes are adapted to cold and temperate climates.

However, the current study joins a growing body of evidence that the upper respiratory tracts of this extinct group functioned via a different set of rules as a result of a separate evolutionary history and overall cranial bauplan (bodyplan), resulting in a mosaic of features not found among any population of Homo sapiens. Thus Dr. Márquez and his team of paleoanthropologists, comparative anatomists, and an otolaryngologist have contributed to the understanding of two of the most controversial topics in paleoanthropology -- were Neanderthals a different species from modern humans and which aspects of their cranial morphology evolved as adaptations to cold stress.

"The strategy was to have a comprehensive examination of the nasal region of diverse modern human population groups and then compare the data with the fossil evidence. We used traditional morphometrics, geometric morphometric methodology based on 3D coordinate data, and CT imaging," Dr. Márquez explained.

Neanderthal skull discovered in 1908 at La Chapelle-aux-Saints

Neanderthal skull discovered in 1908 at La Chapelle-aux-Saints ( Wikipedia). The new study found distinctive differences between the Neanderthal and Homo sapiens nasal complex.

Co-author William Lawson, MD, DDS, vice-chair and the Eugen Grabscheid research professor of otolaryngology and director of the Paleorhinology Laboratory of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, notes that the external nasal aperture of the Neanderthals approximates some modern human populations but that their midfacial prognathism (protrusion of the midface) is startlingly different. That difference is one of a number of traits suggesting an evolutionary development distinct from that of modern humans. Dr. Lawson's conclusion is predicated upon nearly four decades of clinical practice, in which he has seen over 7,000 patients representing a rich diversity of human nasal anatomy.

Jeffrey T. Laitman, co-author and Professor at the Icahn School of Medicine and director of the Center for Anatomy and Functional Morphology states that this article is a significant contribution to the question of Neanderthal cold adaptation in the nasal region.

"The strength of this new research lies in its taking the totality of the Neanderthal nasal complex into account, rather than looking at a single feature. By looking at the complete morphological pattern, we can conclude that Neanderthals are our close relatives, but they are not us," said Dr. Laitman.

Ian Tattersall, PhD, emeritus curator of the Division of Anthropology at the American Museum of Natural History, an expert on Neanderthal anatomy and functional morphology who did not participate in this study, stated, "Márquez and colleagues have carried out a most provocative and intriguing investigation of a very significant complex in the Neanderthal skull that has all too frequently been overlooked." Dr. Tattersall hopes that "with luck, this research will stimulate future research demonstrating once and for all that Homo neanderthalensis deserves a distinctive identity of its own."

Featured image: Wax model of a Neanderthal. Credit: Erich Ferdinand / flickr

Source:

SUNY Downstate Medical Center. "Were Neanderthals a sub-species of modern humans? New research says no." ScienceDaily. 18 November 2014.

Journal Reference :

Samuel Márquez, Anthony S. Pagano, Eric Delson, William Lawson, Jeffrey T. Laitman.  The Nasal Complex of Neanderthals: An Entry Portal to their Place in Human Ancestry . The Anatomical Record, 2014; 297 (11): 2121 DOI: 10.1002/ar.23040

By April Hollowa

Comments

Roberto Peron's picture

Skull KV55 is noted on Wikipedia as being the skull of Ahkenaton and then Smenkare?  Normally the skull is thought to be that of Ahkenaton I believe but not Smenkare.  As for observation and believing your own eyes that’s what I’ve been saying for a long time now.  That is, you can see modern people today walking the streets who have some very Neanderthal features and some of whom even have the characteristic bun at the base of the skull.  You can also see the Homo erectus type, the Homo habilis type, etc.  And what are we to make of the newborns who have tails and/or furry bodies with some looking more ape-like than H. sapien when they are born?  These species didn’t go extinct.  They are still here with us and IMO they are inbred with modern humans.

Ahkentaton's skull does have some very Neanderthal featuress from observation in my opinion by the way.  But his skull also has some features unlike those typically attributed to Neanderthals.  For instance the elongated skull is NOT a Neanderthal feature.  Yet, it is not a Homo sapien, H. erectus, H. habilis feature either.  So what is it?  Obvious to me is the Ahkenaton was not a pure bred Neanderthal but a creature of mixed blood, that is, Neanderthal and ?????

I do not think Neanderthals were the cavemen carrying the clubs type brutes.  In fact, we've given them a rather bad rap IMO.  We know they made jewelry, buried their dead, made clothing, etc.  These are all signs of culture not of some caveman.  I think they had culture and I think they achieved many things culturally and we’ve got to break out of this mold that they were barbaric cavemen because the evidence says they were NOT.  

As for Esau we know he was covered in thick reddish hair/fur.  We know he was a hunter, a bit of a wildman of the wilderness.  What was he?  An Australopithecine?  H. habilis?  Some other species of man?  We don’t know frankly.  And what about Noah?  Jewish legend says he was born covered in white fur/hair.  What was he?  Again we don’t know.

You raise some valid points and observation IS important.  What has happened in the field of human evolution is that we have shut our eyes to the obvious and tried to cramp fossil finds into our pet theories nice and neat.  Problem is they are NOT fitting nice and neat and are sticking out at the seams!

Good post Farang :)

 

"Jeffrey T. Laitman, co-author and Professor at the Icahn School of Medicine and director of the Center for Anatomy and Functional Morphology states...."The strength of this new research lies in its taking the totality of the Neanderthal nasal complex into account, rather than looking at a single feature. By looking at the complete morphological pattern, we can conclude that Neanderthals are our close relatives, but they are not us,"...."

Perhaps. Or perhaps "research" conducted by using one's eyes to view the obvious Neaderthal skull of either Smenkare or Akhenaton (both Wikipedia articles on them have same skull photo) leads to exactly the opposite conclusion. We are "them" and "they" are us. Mixed over a million years of interaction. Is it that hard to grasp when science proves we still have 2-4% average Neanderthal DNA? Who is Laitman kidding?

The written ancient records that the Mittani Indo-Aryans of today's Anatolia/Kurdistan area sent their daughters to marry these KHeperu kings of Egypt, in fact, Amenhotep III was the son of a Mittani princess and was married to a full-blooded Mittani princess: SaTYAVati. A startlingly lovely woman, and surely almost full-blooded Neaderthal.

She had a child with a "modern human" from India: Parashurama, aka Rama I, aka "Priam." That child was Horemheb/Homer, best known as Vyasa. She had children with Amenhotep III, aka "Emperor Santanu." These were almost certainly full-blooded Neanderthal off-spring.

Obviously the princess called "TaduKhipa", pronounced TaDu Ebe/Eve is the Mittani Princess/ Neanderthal beauty Nefertiti. (BTW: her Mittani name means "Beautiful Aditi")

One only needs to view images of her skull to discern the obvious. You think any modern man would not mate with her? You are mistaken. She is the biblical "Naomi."

Is it "possible" there is a decided and obvious bias in "academic circles" against accepting that these Neaderthals of the 18th dynasty and 19th dynasty are the ones known as "Hapiru/Hebrews?" Yuya/asafJa/YHW/"Tushratta"/Dashartha has reddish yellow hair and Neanderthal skull, with prominent Neaderthal nose..look at images of his mummy. Talk about "nasal evidence...."

His offspring/lineage Ramses II/Lord Rama/ has Neaderthal skull. As does Seti I, Thutankhamun, SaTYAVati ("Tiye") and many other mummies of those two dynasties. I've already listed Akhenaton/Smenkare skull for anyone to go view. Frankly, they look like very archaic humans, with simian-like face/jutting jaw. Perhaps even moree like Habilis than Neanderthal.

Yuya had a refuge in Upper Egypt called "AkhMin," in the EgyptianMinya provence/district: he is a Turko-Greek Minyan. Sailor.

Fact is: we need to stop acting like Neanderthals "died out" 35,000 years ago while barely being civilized, and accept they sailed to oceans, and had civilizations that rivaled anything the contemporary modern Homo Sapien Sapien built. As perhaps did the other archaic humans, including the builders of Gobekli tepe.

The Khabur/Kheperu "Haburs" of VasuKanni ("Assyria" on the Habur River) are, to my eye and line of reasoned thought along with DNA evidence, descended from "Handyman"" Homo HABilis. Obviously.

"Esau" is Sausatar, king of Mittani. Esau means "red/hairy." Eurasian Neanderthal. Get used to it, accept the obvious. Do your own research. Come to your own reasoned conclusions based on the science, the evidence.

I like you spend a lot of time on you-tube, there are so many interresting documentarys out there. Sunken citys. Lost empires. Black Egypt. Astro theology (sun gods) bigfoot if you have an intrest in this planet and it's inhabitants past presant and future then it's all there. Just remember some are pro some are con some are true some have truths. All are intresting.

I have enjoyed this thread quite a lot. I would invite all of you to check out a YouTube video by Lloyde Pye. I first watched his video "Everything you know is wrong" several years ago by chance. And then I watched it again, and the 3rd time I was taking notes to back check what he was saying, and that's when some things finally started to make sense.
If you are a skeptic this will wake you up, if you believe, it has some great information and deductive reasoning. The hominids are still here, they have always been here, it's their planet, not ours, and hopefully we don't F it up too much because they'll be here long after we kill each other off.
The only down side to watching Lloyds video was that was it opened a whole bunch of other lines of questioning about what other 'truths' we are being feed that are also fictions! I've probably read more material and watched more video over the past 3-4 years than 5 normal people would have, but I enjoy learning so it's all good.
I'd enjoy hearing comments after you've watched the video about what your thoughts are.

Wonderful post, fully agree.
In my opinion I see "civilized" human populations on a downward spiral both physically/mentally partly due to 40 years of failed " new and improved" politically correct Communistic educational system in our country. Sad to learn that script hand writing, art, wood workshop, early American US History such as WW1 and WW2 are being taught in public schools.

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