Pagan Origins of Easter

The Ancient Pagan Origins of Easter

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A related perspective is that, rather than being a representation of the story of Ishtar, Easter was originally a celebration of Eostre, goddess of Spring, otherwise known as Ostara, Austra, and Eastre. One of the most revered aspects of Ostara for both ancient and modern observers is a spirit of renewal. 

Celebrated at Spring Equinox on March 21, Ostara marks the day when light is equal to darkness, and will continue to grow. As the bringer of light after a long dark winter, the goddess was often depicted with the hare, an animal that represents the arrival of spring as well as the fertility of the season.

According to Jacob Grimm’s Deutsche Mythologie, the idea of resurrection was ingrained within the celebration of Ostara: “Ostara, Eástre seems therefore to have been the divinity of the radiant dawn, of upspringing light, a spectacle that brings joy and blessing, whose meaning could be easily adapted by the resurrection-day of the christian’s God.”

Most analyses of the origin of the word ‘Easter’ maintain that it was named after a goddess mentioned by the 7th to 8th-century English monk Bede, who wrote that Ēosturmōnaþ (Old English 'Month of Ēostre', translated in Bede's time as "Paschal month") was an English month, corresponding to April, which he says "was once called after a goddess of theirs named Ēostre, in whose honour feasts were celebrated in that month".

The origins of Easter customs

The most widely-practiced customs on Easter Sunday relate to the symbol of the rabbit (‘Easter bunny’) and the egg.  As outlined previously, the rabbit was a symbol associated with Eostre, representing the beginning of Springtime. Likewise, the egg has come to represent Spring, fertility and renewal.  In Germanic mythology, it is said that Ostara healed a wounded bird she found in the woods by changing it into a hare. Still partially a bird, the hare showed its gratitude to the goddess by laying eggs as gifts.

The Encyclopedia Britannica clearly explains the pagan traditions associated with the egg: “The egg as a symbol of fertility and of renewed life goes back to the ancient Egyptians and Persians, who had also the custom of colouring and eating eggs during their spring festival.” In ancient Egypt, an egg symbolised the sun, while for the Babylonians, the egg represents the hatching of the Venus Ishtar, who fell from heaven to the Euphrates.

Relief with Phanes

Relief with Phanes, c. 2nd century A.D. Orphic god Phanes emerging from the cosmic egg, surrounded by the zodiac. Image source .

In many Christian traditions, the custom of giving eggs at Easter celebrates new life. Christians remember that Jesus, after dying on the cross, rose from the dead, showing that life could win over death. For Christians the egg is a symbol of Jesus' resurrection, as when they are cracked open, they stand for the empty tomb.

Regardless of the very ancient origins of the symbol of the egg, most people agree that nothing symbolises renewal more perfectly than the egg – round, endless, and full of the promise of life.

While many of the pagan customs associated with the celebration of Spring were at one stage practised alongside Christian Easter traditions, they eventually came to be absorbed within Christianity, as symbols of the resurrection of Jesus.  The First Council of Nicaea (325) established the date of Easter as the first Sunday after the full moon (the Paschal Full Moon) following the March equinox.

Whether it is observed as a religious holiday commemorating the resurrection of Jesus Christ, or a time for families in the northern hemisphere to enjoy the coming of Spring and celebrate with egg decorating and Easter bunnies, the celebration of Easter still retains the same spirit of rebirth and renewal, as it has for thousands of years.

Featured image: Main: ‘A Hare in the Forest by Hans Hoffmann (public domain). Inset: Ostara (1884) by Johannes Gehrts (public domain)

By April Holloway

References

The pagan roots of Easter - Heather McDougall

Ancient Sumerian Origins of the Easter Story – by Valerie Tarico

History of Easter: Exploring the Ancient Origins of the Modern Holiday – by Shawna Burreson

The Origins of Easter – by Ross Abasolo

Comments

Excellent article. As a Christian, I'm always telling other Christians about this, but most of them refuse to believe or check out the facts for themselves.

malisa wright

You have been informed correctly. The bunny and the eggs and the bright colors and the sweets come from the same sources as the name "Easter". Nothing to do with anything xtian or jewish, but purely from celebrations of the return of Spring and the rebirth of the crops from the symbolic death of Winter. These things were a huge deal to primitive subsistence farmers who would starve to death if the seasons ever took a break...

just out of curiosity, where in this judeo-xtian torah/bible (excluding the muslims, which i'm sure they're fine with) is this magical particolor egg laying rabbit prophesied/mentioned?

I am told by those that claim to know that this easter bunny both predates judaism, and does not reference jesus.

Fascinating article, and it certainly sparked some comments! some of them were also interesting, many were laughable, and one was highly informative (the other version of the Descent of Inanna). Thanks for the excellent read!

- "The problem with quotations that you see on the Internet is that it is
difficult to discern if they are genuine." -Abraham Lincoln

-- Me transmitte sursum, Caledoni!

yes, spring is upon us again so let us put away our arguments and extra bedding...

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