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Pagan Origins of Easter

The Ancient Pagan Origins of Easter

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Easter Sunday is a festival and holiday celebrated by millions of people around the world who honour the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred three days after his crucifixion at Calvary. It is also the day that children excitedly wait for the Easter bunny to arrive and deliver their treats of chocolate eggs. Easter is a ‘movable feast’ which is chosen to correspond with the first Sunday following the full moon after the March equinox, and occurs on different dates around the world since western churches use the Gregorian calendar, while eastern churches use the Julian calendar. So where did this ‘movable feast’ begin, and what are the origins of the traditions and customs celebrated on this important day around the world?

Easter - Christianity

Christian’s today celebrate Easter Sunday as the resurrection of Jesus. Image source .

Most historians, including Biblical scholars, agree that Easter was originally a pagan festival. According to the New Unger’s Bible Dictionary says: “The word Easter is of Saxon origin, Eastra, the goddess of spring, in whose honour sacrifices were offered about Passover time each year. By the eighth century Anglo–Saxons had adopted the name to designate the celebration of Christ’s resurrection.” However, even among those who maintain that Easter has pagan roots, there is some disagreement over which pagan tradition the festival emerged from. Here we will explore some of those perspectives.

Resurrection as a symbol of rebirth

One theory that has been put forward is that the Easter story of crucifixion and resurrection is symbolic of rebirth and renewal and retells the cycle of the seasons, the death and return of the sun. 

According to some scholars, such as Dr. Tony Nugent, teacher of Theology and Religious Studies at Seattle University, and Presbyterian minister, the Easter story comes from the Sumerian legend of Damuzi (Tammuz) and his wife Inanna (Ishtar), an epic myth called “The Descent of Inanna” found inscribed on cuneiform clay tablets dating back to 2100 BC. When Tammuz dies, Ishtar is grief–stricken and follows him to the underworld. In the underworld, she enters through seven gates, and her worldly attire is removed. "Naked and bowed low" she is judged, killed, and then hung on display. In her absence, the earth loses its fertility, crops cease to grow and animals stop reproducing. Unless something is done, all life on earth will end.

After Inanna has been missing for three days her assistant goes to other gods for help. Finally one of them Enki, creates two creatures who carry the plant of life and water of life down to the Underworld, sprinkling them on Inanna and Damuzi, resurrecting them, and giving them the power to return to the earth as the light of the sun for six months. After the six months are up, Tammuz returns to the underworld of the dead, remaining there for another six months, and Ishtar pursues him, prompting the water god to rescue them both. Thus were the cycles of winter death and spring life.

The Descent of Inanna

The Descent of Inanna. Image source .

Dr Nugent is quick to point out that drawing parallels between the story of Jesus and the epic of Inanna “doesn't necessarily mean that there wasn't a real person, Jesus, who was crucified, but rather that, if there was, the story about it is structured and embellished in accordance with a pattern that was very ancient and widespread.”

The Sumerian goddess Inanna is known outside of Mesopotamia by her Babylonian name, "Ishtar". In ancient Canaan Ishtar is known as Astarte, and her counterparts in the Greek and Roman pantheons are known as Aphrodite and Venus. In the 4th Century, when Christians identified the exact site in Jerusalem where the empty tomb of Jesus had been located, they selected the spot where a temple of Aphrodite (Astarte/Ishtar/Inanna) stood. The temple was torn down and the So Church of the Holy Sepulchre was built, the holiest church in the Christian world.

Dr Nugent points out that the story of Inanna and Damuzi is just one of a number of accounts of dying and rising gods that represent the cycle of the seasons and the stars. For example, the resurrection of Egyptian Horus; the story of Mithras, who was worshipped at Springtime; and the tale of Dionysus, resurrected by his grandmother. Among these stories are prevailing themes of fertility, conception, renewal, descent into darkness, and the triumph of light over darkness or good over evil.

Easter as a celebration of the Goddess of Spring

Comments

Isn't that convenient? You can dismiss any and all conversation because others must be "in darkness." It's got to be pretty dark with your head buried.

Cassie and Kathy, what you are doing according to the Word of God is "Casting your pearl before swine". They will never understand because they are in darkness. Remember John chapter one.And in Him (Christ, the Word made flesh) was light. And the light shineth in the darkness (the world) and the darkness comprehendeth it not.

Your position/argument fails as soon as you referenced 'sons of Eber' as though that is a factual statement/accounting of (whatever) people are being discussed. To quote the Torah and/or Bible, especially related to something as fanciful as the tale of Noah, as though it is a known fact or possible or even plausible is a failed platform. The Torah and Bible are books. Books of stories. Some which *might* have an ounce of fact at their core.

Well written and interesting article!

Michele, that's not actually true in either account. Paganism was not around thousands of years before Yahweh or Jehovah. I've heard people say that "the Mesopotamians had it first" but if you look at the geneology, the "sons of Eber" who became known as the Hebrews, were cousins of the sons of Cush, those who settled the Mesopotamian basin (Abraham packed up and left the city of Ur which is in that area). They shared grandparents and experiences so it's only natural that there are similarities and stories with the same roots but taken in different directions (in one the serpent causes the fall of man, in the other it is the protector and enlighten-er of man). It's not a competition to state that in the Bible it is very clear the followers of Jehovah or Jesus are not to adopt or mix the worship of foreign gods with the worship of Jehovah. Stating that Easter is rooted in paganism, but now is embraced and incorporated into Christianity may appear to be true on the surface, but for those who have really dug in and studied the Bible to find out what it has to say, will know that is not true in actuality. If Christians are doing so, it is in direct conflict with what is written in the Bible. Pagans can do what they want because it's their tradition, but I think the point that Kathy was making is that there are specific accounts in the Bible of when mixing of worship was done and what God's view was of it. If you are a Christian and celebrating Easter, then you are unwittingly violating God's law regarding worship of other gods. Christians are supposed to imitate Christ which means doing what he would have done. He would not participate in the traditions/worship of other gods.

excellent post! Very clear and straight to the point! You know Jehovah loves it!

 

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