A particularly fruitful moment for technological innovation?

Why does culture sometimes evolve via sudden bursts of innovation?

(Read the article on one page)

Human beings inherit many genetic traits directly from their parents. However, cultural traits – tools, beliefs and behaviors that are transmitted by learning – can be passed on not only by parents but also teachers and peers. Many animals have learned behaviors, but people are uniquely good at building on existing knowledge to innovate further. This capacity, known as  cumulative culture , was captured by Sir Isaac Newton when he said, “If I have seen further, it is by  standing on the shoulders of giants .”

We can see evidence of this cumulative culture in the archaeological record; over time, there’s an accelerating increase in the number of tools people use. But the archaeological record reveals another pattern, too: there’s also evidence for large-scale  losses of culture. For example, archaeological excavation suggests that Aboriginal populations in Tasmania  lost numerous technologies  over time, including nets, bone tools and warm clothing, even though these tools might still have been useful.

And it doesn’t seem like cultural accumulation just proceeds through time at a regular pace. The archaeological record shows some evidence of large bursts of innovation occurring after relatively long periods of little change. For example, the early human archaeological record is composed primarily of stone tools for approximately two million years. Then, from about 60,000 to 30,000 years ago, archaeologists find a burst of  creative activity , such as burial sites, art forms including cave paintings and statues, and engraved bone and antler tools.

Bradshaw rock paintings found in the north-west Kimberley region of Western Australia.

Bradshaw rock paintings found in the north-west Kimberley region of Western Australia. ( public domain )

The process of change in the frequency and distribution of cultural traits over time is known as cultural evolution. But what drives it? Why would the inventory of tools expand at some times and diminish at others? These are questions that have intrigued archaeologists for decades. We propose a new model we think addresses some aspects of how cultural evolution happens – and, crucially, it’s based on the idea that not all innovations occur in the same way.

Sometimes our ancestors used the same kind of stone tools with no improvements for millennia.

Sometimes our ancestors used the same kind of stone tools with no improvements for millennia.  В Михайлюк CC BY

Modeling how culture advances

Since it’s not possible (or ethical) to experimentally manipulate large groups of people, scientists make mathematical models to try to understand how cultural traits evolve. A model of this kind is a set of rules that describe mechanisms that may underlie the process we’re interested in.

For example, a model of cultural evolution could use equations to describe the rate at which individuals invent new things, transmit their knowledge and learn from others. These equations would depend on a number of parameters – things like population size and the rates of invention and learning.

A model can be explored analytically, by calculating what patterns the set of equations predicts, or it could be explored using computer simulations. In our research we did both.

Most of the models of cultural evolution study the spread of technologies and behaviors that already exist in a population. In our PNAS paper, coauthored with Stanford’s Marcus Feldman, we introduce a new model of  cultural evolution . What’s different about our model is quite simple: we don’t assume all human innovations are created in the same way.

Watching our model’s predictions unfold

Working with a model is kind of like playing a scientifically minded game of  The Sims . On the computer, we simulate a human population of a certain size. We set the rules for a number of interdependent innovation processes to occur at different rates. For example, inventions that can be viewed as “strokes of genius” may be rare, while the invention of tools that are versions of existing ones might be more frequent.

Once people figure out how to fish with a net, additional improvements and combinations with existing technologies can come fast and furious.

Once people figure out how to fish with a net, additional improvements and combinations with existing technologies can come fast and furious.  Hans A Rosbach CC BY-SA

We allow new “large leaps” in knowledge to occur at a certain rate per person. Once someone in the population has made one of these rare large leaps, other innovations might occur more readily. For example, the invention of a fishing net could lead to other related tools – maybe a weight to sink the net – or combinations with other tools, such as adding a pole to wield it.

These different processes of innovation – lightning-bolt ideas and incremental improvements – occur at different rates. The relationships between them determine whether the accumulation of tools occurs in a stepwise pattern. If large innovative leaps are fairly common, the number of tools in the population can show smooth, accelerating growth. On the other hand, if large-leap innovations are rare, but populations readily invent related tools and frequently combine existing technologies into novel tools, then each new large leap will lead to a rapid burst of cultural innovations in a punctuated pattern.

Register to become part of our active community, get updates, receive a monthly newsletter, and enjoy the benefits and rewards of our member point system OR just post your comment below as a Guest.

Human Origins

Noah's Sacrifice - watercolor circa 1896–1902 by James Tissot
The imperfect state of archaeological researches in the Near East impedes any definite identification of the original race or races that created the earliest civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt. According to Gordon Childe, however, the predominant racial element in the earliest graves in the region from Elam to the Danube is the ‘Mediterranean’.

Ancient Places

Himmerod Abbey and Church building
Himmerod Abbey, a Cistercian monastery that's existed for almost 900 years in what is now western Germany is closing down for good, due to running expenses and also a shortage of monks. Notably, the monastery was used during the 1950’s in a distinctly non-monastic capacity, as a secret meeting point of former Wehrmacht high-ranking officers discussing West Germany's rearmament.

Opinion

The ancient and mysterious Sphinx, Giza, Egypt.
In 1995, NBC televised a prime-time documentary hosted by actor Charlton Heston and directed by Bill Cote, called Mystery of the Sphinx. The program centered on the research and writings of John Anthony West, a (non-academic) Egyptologist, who, along with Dr. Robert Schoch, a professor of Geology at Boston University, made an astounding discovery on the Great Sphinx of Giza in Egypt.

Our Mission

At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained.

The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe.

We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives.

By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. 

Ancient Image Galleries

View from the Castle Gate (Burgtor). (Public Domain)
Door surrounded by roots of Tetrameles nudiflora in the Khmer temple of Ta Phrom, Angkor temple complex, located today in Cambodia. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
Cable car in the Xihai (West Sea) Grand Canyon (CC BY-SA 4.0)
Next article