Petralona Cave - Greece

The human skull that challenges the Out of Africa theory

(Read the article on one page)

This is the account of the discovery of a skull that has the potential to change what we know about human evolution, and a suppression and cover-up which followed.   

In 1959, in an area called Chalkidiki in Petralona, Northern Greece, a shepherd came across a small opening to a cave, which became visible when a thick covering of snow finally melted.  He gathered a group of villagers to help him clear the entrance so they could go inside and explore.  They found a cave rich in stalactites and stalagmites. But they also found something surprising – a human skull embedded in the wall (later research also uncovered a huge number of fossils including pre-human species, animal hair, fossilized wood, and stone and bone tools).   

Petralona SkullThe skull was given to the University of Thessaloniki in Greece by the President of the Petralona Community. The agreement was that once the research was done, a museum would be opened featuring the findings from the Petralona cave, and the skull would be returned to be displayed in the museum – something that never happened.

Dr Aris Poulianos, member of the UNESCO's IUAES (International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences), later founder of the Anthropological Association of Greece , and an expert anthropologist who was working at the University of Moscow at the time, was invited by the Prime Minister of Greece to return to Greece to take a position of a University Chair in Athens.  This was due to the publication of his book, ‘The Origins of the Greeks’, which provides excellent research showing that Greek people didn’t originate from the Slavic nations but were indigenous to Greece.  Upon his return to Greece, Dr Poulianos was made aware of the discovery of the skull at Petralona, and immediately started studying the Petralona cave and skull.

The ‘Petralona man’, or Archanthropus of Petralona, as it has since been called, was found to be 700,000 years old, making it the oldest human europeoid (presenting European traits) of that age ever discovered in Europe. Dr Poulianos’ research showed that the Petralona man evolved separately in Europe and was not an ancestor of a species that came out of Africa. 

In 1964, independent German researchers, Breitinger and Sickenberg, tried to dismiss Dr Poulianos’ findings, arguing that the skull was only 50,000 years old and was indeed an ancestor that came from Africa.  However, research published in the US in 1971 in the prestigious Archaeology magazine, backed up the findings that the skull was indeed 700,000 years old.  This was based on an analysis of the cave’s stratigraphy and the sediment in which the skull was embedded.  Further research in the cave discovered isolated teeth and two pre-human skeletons dating back 800,000 years, as well as other fossils of various species.

Today, most academics who have analyzed the Petralona remains say that the cranium of the Archanthropus of Petralona belongs to an archaic hominid distinguished from Homo erectus, and from both the classic Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans, but showing characterists of all those species and presenting strong European traits.  A skull dating back 700,000 which is either Homo sapien or part Homo sapien is in direct conflict with the Out of Africa theory of human evolution.  

Petralona Man

Further excavations continued in the cave of Petralona with the participation of international researchers (46 specialists from 12 separate countries), which provided further proof of Dr Poulianos’ claims, including remarkable findings like fossilized pieces of wood, an oak leaf, animal hair and coprolites, which enabled accurate dating, as well as the almost continuous presence of stone and bone tools of the Archanthropus evolutionary stage, from the lower (750,000 years) to the upper (550,000 years) layers of sediment within the cave.

The research, after an interruption due to the dictatorship in Greece, continued up to 1983. It was then ordered by the government that all excavations at the site were forbidden to anyone, including the original archaeological team, and for 15 years nobody had access to the site or to the findings – no reason was provided by the government.  Was this denial of access to prevent the extraction of whatever new scientific conclusions remained hidden within the incredible fossils embedded within the layers of the caves’ walls? 

After the Anthropological Society of Greece took the case to the courts, 15 years later they were again allowed access to the cave.  Since then the Ministry of Culture is trying in any way to overcome the Courts decision and further trials proceed.


I agree with the bulk of what you are saying. I'm curious about the one where you said

the origin of europeans themselves is also the bantu/khoi/san peoples etc and these peoples are also the ancestors of the Moors etc... these people are most likely the ancestors of all humanity

That line can be taken a few different ways because you worded that. Are you stating respectably that humans are a form and before they developed certain set complexions and facial features that we just branched out? or are you coming back to the out of africa theory when you say these peoples are most likely the ancestors of all humanity while you don't make totally clear who "these peoples" are, as you have named various groups among them Europeans.

Wether or not you believe the skull is human, I've seen plenty of people credit non human skulls as proof of human origins and make excuses as to skull erosion as to why it's condition is the way it is...which one could say that forehead doesn't seem visible (although it is at a downwards angle in the first photo, but when it is in the case you can see more of a forehead better.)

I don't believe one set of people came before any other, As people have previously stated the Multi Regional Theory is the only one that presents validity without all the hate that comes with the all world accepted sciences.

Most argument is half-thought-through. You who are proud of your europeanness as opposed to mere whiteness, or whatever post-colonial/industrial identity was thrust upon you by banker-run bureaucrats, must realize that the origin of europeans themselves is also the bantu/khoi/san peoples etc and these peoples are also the ancestors of the Moors etc... these people are most likely the ancestors of all humanity.... Maybe there was a separate human development that accounts for whatever 'caveman' existed and encountered high-brow civilization (high-brow referring to the high forehead that primates DO NOT have)

The oldest skulls and bones found in europe and the world over are those with prognostic septum's. This prognathic feature is the basis for the knee-jerk colonial assertion that 'blacks' descend from apes.

The problem with humanity today is half education..... The ruling elite want it this way... They can privately recognize THEIR origins as the same as the people they sit on as a class while the lower classes. like crabs in a barrel, feeling shame and resentment from cognitive dissonance, fight with others they think they are better than or with those they think are better than them when in fact all humanity are distant cousins... Nations or rather corrupt leaders of representational govts create 'interests' for which one group is willing to kill members of another group....

BTW that skull has no forehead meaning its not a human skull.

With the blending of the aryan Religion with swedish worshippers of Frey and Freya, (King Gylfi was an Yngling who claimed descendance of Yngvi Frey), Tyr the warriors God was replaced with Frey, the farming God, as well Frigga was pushed aside by Freya.

But as the difference between humans is mostly spiritual and Science is materialistic we try to find differences in the Body (which are plenty), but the difference between a white mens Body and a Black mens Body are as Big as both difference to a Monkey. Well, then where is the border between monkeys and any Type of Human?

It is spiritual, but no scientist wants to go there.

riparianfrstlvr's picture

being a NEA, Neanderthal European American, i agree with you TYR. i am not white nor caucasion, my people may have been to the region. I agree with John Dale and the Chinese and believe in the multi-regional theory. i have a question for you. as i understand TYR is the son of Odin like Thor. why aren't  you in the movies and comics? you dad too? i never knew of TYR until i bought a cd of the same name. just wondering that about Norse mythology. i really like those Valkyries too, way better than what i was taught at catholic school that's for sure.


Take a look around, Whites are being labeled genetic defects stemmed from an offspring between a dark skinned couple and it is passed off as "our origins". We are not the black man's albino children. We have roots and they are to be respected! WE KNOW! we are indigenous to EUROPE! and these biased scientists will do anything to strip us of our true history and heritage! This is why Dr. Poulianos' find is whats needed in order for our respect. people are acting as if melanin theories are why White People became White after a black couple had albino children and when there is authentic discoveries made, it wants to be hushed because it will stir the sub saharan negroids and zion jews into a frenzy. I don't care. We deserve our respect and we are of our own kind!


Register to become part of our active community, get updates, receive a monthly newsletter, and enjoy the benefits and rewards of our member point system OR just post your comment below as a Guest.

Top New Stories

Rice goddesses are found across cultures
For centuries, rice has been a staple diet and plays an important role in Asian culture. Although rice farmers have found their lives becoming more difficult due to climate change, Bloomberg states in 2016 that 16 million people still farm rice in Thailand alone. Commemorating the beginning of the rice growing season with an annual Royal Plowing Ceremony

Human Origins

Map of sites and postulated migratory pathways associated with modern humans dispersing across Asia during the Late Pleistocene.
Most people are now familiar with the traditional "Out of Africa" model: modern humans evolved in Africa and then dispersed across Asia and reached Australia in a single wave about 60,000 years ago. However, technological advances in DNA analysis and other fossil identification techniques, as well as an emphasis on multidisciplinary research

Ancient Technology

Detail of a star chart dating to the Middle Kingdom.
The calendar is one of mankind’s most important inventions. Calendars allowed societies to organize time for religious, social, economic, and administrative purposes. The calendar, or rather, two sets of calendars, were invented by the ancient Egyptians. One of these was a lunar calendar, which was used mainly for the organization of religious festivals.

Ancient Places

Smuts house
The farmstead of General Jan Smuts on the outskirts of Pretoria, is reputed to be one of the most haunted private homes in the country, according to Mr Mark Rose-Christie, raconteur and social scientist, who regularly takes brave visitors on a tour of haunted sites on his mystery ghost bus.

Our Mission

At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained.

The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe.

We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives.

By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. 

Ancient Image Galleries

View from the Castle Gate (Burgtor). (Public Domain)
Door surrounded by roots of Tetrameles nudiflora in the Khmer temple of Ta Phrom, Angkor temple complex, located today in Cambodia. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
Cable car in the Xihai (West Sea) Grand Canyon (CC BY-SA 4.0)
Next article