‘Abraham and the Angels’ by Aert de Gelder

Is There a Natural Explanation For The Unnatural Ages in Genesis?

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Is there any significance to the puzzling ages of the antediluvian patriarchs in the fifth chapter of Genesis? And why do these numbers differ between the Masoretic text and the Septuagint?

These questions occupied the Swedish 19th century novelist, journalist, scholar and later member of parliament, Viktor Rydberg during the late 1860s.

In 1869, he had come up with answers to these questions that were published in Swedish. The ideas of Rydberg caught the interest of Samuel Birch of the British Museum and a paper was published in English a few years later in Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology (1877:vol.V) under the title “ Key to the genealogical table of the first patriarchs in Genesis ”.

Since then, the paper has been left largely unnoticed.

Lifespans of the Biblical Patriarchs.

Lifespans of the Biblical Patriarchs. ( CC BY SA )

Rydberg’s Thesis

The paper suggests that an astronomical table is hiding behind the numbers of the patriarchs. That table includes figures central to the astronomy of the time and specifically crucial to the archaic Hebrew lunisolar calendar.

However plausible the solution was, it remained quite speculative with little source material to support it. Later archaeological findings however, like the Sumerian King List and the Dead Sea Scrolls, seems to offer some support to Rydberg’s thesis.

Cuneiform writing on a clay brick, written in the Sumerian language (during the time of the Akkadian empire), listing all kings from the creation of kingship until 1800 BC when the list was created. Displayed at Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

Cuneiform writing on a clay brick, written in the Sumerian language (during the time of the Akkadian empire), listing all kings from the creation of kingship until 1800 BC when the list was created. Displayed at Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.  (CC BY SA 4.0 ) This is one piece of evidence which seems to offer support for Rydberg’s thesis.

Let´s take a closer look at it. Comparing the lineages in Genesis 4 and 5, Rydberg assumed they shared a common source document, which he set out to reconstruct. He believed Seth, rather than Elohim, had been the divinity in the original document. Since the names Adam and Enosh has the same meaning, he figured one of them was added later. Seth and Enosh were therefore not included in the reconstruction. He ended up with a list of eight antediluvian patriarchs.

Seth. Patriarchs line in iconostasis. Zhdan Dementiev, Vologda. Cathedral of the Assumption, St. Cyril-Belozersky Monastery. Museum of Cyril Belozersky Monastery.

Seth. Patriarchs line in iconostasis. Zhdan Dementiev, Vologda. Cathedral of the Assumption, St. Cyril-Belozersky Monastery. Museum of Cyril Belozersky Monastery. ( CC BY SA 3.0 )

In Genesis 5 three numbers are connected to each patriarch. Their age at the birth of their first son, the remaining years of their life, and their age at death. The age of Enoch being 365 has been taken as a hint towards an astronomical interpretation. Arranging these numbers in columns and adding them together confirmed the astronomical hint. The first column gave the number 1461, otherwise known as the Sothis-cycle - the number of years between two heliacal risings of the star Sirius on the same date of the solar year. This would imply that the deluge happened exactly a Sothis-period after the creation of man.

‘The Deluge’ (1834) by John Martin.

‘The Deluge’ (1834) by John Martin. ( Public Domain )

The second column yielded the number 4947. That number happens to be the number of lunar years equivalent to 4800 solar years. In 600 years, this cycle diverges with less than a day, if an intercalary day is observed every 50th year. This fits perfectly with the so-called jubilees described in Leviticus (25:8–13).

These two exact numbers occurring when the ages of the patriarchs are added together can hardly be explained away as mere coincidences.

Supporting Evidence

Furthermore, the unearthing of the Sumerian King List provides a possible explanation to why the Masoretic text has ten patriarchs rather than eight.

Also, it is well known since the finding of the Dead Sea scrolls in the 1940s that the calendar was a burning issue for the movement that took refuge in Qumran by the Dead Sea. By the time the Qumran Community was established, the temple in Jerusalem had adopted several Greek customs, among them the more convenient metonic 19-year cycle for making calendars.

Two scrolls from the Dead Sea Scrolls lie at their location in the Qumran Caves before being removed for scholarly examination by archaeologists.

Two scrolls from the Dead Sea Scrolls lie at their location in the Qumran Caves before being removed for scholarly examination by archaeologists. ( Public Domain )

Moreover, comparing the Masoretic text with that of the Septuagint, Rydberg noticed some important differences. Although the full ages of the patriarchs are the same (except for Lamech), their ages at the birth of their first sons (and hence the remainder of their lives) differ considerably. By the time of the first Greek translation of the Torah, the astronomical significance may very well have become out of date in favor of the Greek lunisolar calendar. However, the lineage did serve a purpose as a pseudo-historical document tying together later events with the creation of the world.

Comments

These people lived during the Epoch of Immortals. They weren't human beings as we think of them today. They were something else entirely different. These were decendants of the GOD's or were demi-gods. During the age of the Immortals - long lifespans and also physical great size were common. The Giants of Pre-deluvion age were also Immortals and 500 years wasn't uncommon for them either. The Immortal beings lived with and walked amongst the Dinosuars and lasted into the Pleistocene Era. The Biblical stories are out of context because of confusion on time lines and when things took place. There was far more going on all around the Earth, than just in the ancient middle east, and archaeology is bearing this out. The bible whats to discount every other narrative and account other than its own. Which makes it biased. Isn't it a bit odd how in antiquity there were great cultures that predated the period of the Biblical Stories by hundreds of thousands of years - and no mention is made of them. Creationists love to point out that the bible says the Earth in no more than 5-7,000 year sold - yet fossil remains clearly indicate life going back as far as BIllions of years ago - ( Kona Dolamite rock is fossilized algae and the oldest in the world ) The God Anubus lived appox. 500,000 -100,000 years ago. ( yes, he was a real being ) And lets not forget the Indian Vedic Texts and the story they tell , all 50,000 to 10,000 years ago or possibly longer.

So how long were their lives?

I wonder whether anyone else has picked up on the fact that the bible talks of the earth having BECOME dark and void ? There is no mention of the earth itself being created at that point only of it apparently being restored and repopulated. If this is so then a worldwide catastrophe could well have resulted in the extinction of all previous life. So a new era began exactly when the bible says it did, yet the earth itself was ancient. Whether you believe the bible or not, a devastated earth would have restored itself over time - just as it will once again after we have have stupidly destroyed it (either through our constant attacks on nature or through nuclear war.)

Veronica-Mae, I have studied the first 5 chapters of Genesis very deeply and have arrived at this very same conclusion. The planet was covered by a shroud of dust, smoke and debris, so that the shape of the Earth could not be determined from the outside, so that the gods had to come down to the surface to see what they were doing "the spirit of god moved upon the face of the waters."
Mankind is VERY destructive, so that we may have "killed" it many times in the past and left not a trace behind.

I think in the early days of civilization before they fully understood the motion of the earth around the sun and how to measure the length of a year they counted moon cycles to mark their age, but that got lost in translation. We can see and count the cycles of the moon which gives us a 29½ day calendar. A man of 960 moons would be about 84 years old, a man of 600 moons would be about 53 years old etc.

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