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Cicero attacks the conspirator in the senate

An Elite Class That Ruled Over the 99%. Sound Familiar? It All Began with the Patricians of Rome


In ancient Rome, the patricians (from the Latin word patres, meaning ‘fathers’) were one of the main classes of Roman society. They were the ruling class, and enjoyed great prestige as well as special privileges, which they gladly lorded over the other inhabitants of Rome – for as long as they could.

Founding the Patrician Families

Some of the famous patrician families include the Claudii, the Julii and the Cornelii. According to some sources, the origins of the patrician class may be traced back to the founding of Rome. This class existed throughout the history of Rome (both the Republic and the Empire), and continued well into the Byzantine period. It may be noted, however, that the nature of this class, for example, their rights and privileges, changed over time. During the Byzantine period, for instance, the word ‘patrician’ was reduced to an honorary title without the power that it once enjoyed.

According to the Roman historian Livy, the patrician class was established by Romulus, the founder of Rome. Livy’s account of the institution of the patrician class is as follows:

“A promiscuous crowd of freemen and slaves, eager for change, fled thither from the neighbouring states. This was the first accession of strength to the nascent greatness of the city. When he [Romulus] was satisfied as to its strength, his next step was to provide for that strength being wisely directed. He created a hundred senators; either because that number was adequate, or because there were only a hundred heads of houses who could be created. In any case, they were called the “Patres” in virtue of their rank, and their descendants were called “Patricians.””

The Pride of Romulus.

The Pride of Romulus. ( Public Domain )

Patrician Powers and Conflicts

The patricians enjoyed great prestige and privileges in Roman society. For example, at the beginning of the Roman Republic, only members of this class were allowed to hold offices in the priesthoods. This was due to the belief that the patricians were able to communicate with the gods better than the rest of the population. Therefore, it was they alone who could perform such priestly duties. During this same period of time, membership of the Senate was open only to the patrician class, though this privilege did not last.   

Since the patrician class was created for the purpose of ruling, there would also be a social class / classes that was / were being ruled. One of these was the plebeian class, which eventually came into conflict with the patricians. The plebeians formed the majority of Rome’s population, and were involved in various important occupations. Thus, this group included farmers, tradesmen, craftsmen, as well as the rank and file of the Roman army, in short, jobs that the patricians deemed unsuitable for their high position.

A young woman sits while a servant fixes her hair with the help of a cupid, who holds up a mirror to offer a reflection.

A young woman sits while a servant fixes her hair with the help of a cupid, who holds up a mirror to offer a reflection. ( Public Domain )

As some of the members of the plebeian class became wealthy, they began demanding that their voice be heard as well with regards to the governance of the republic. Although they were reluctant to give up the absolute power they held, the patricians were aware that they needed the plebeians more than the plebeians needed them. The plebeians were also conscious of this, and threatened on several occasions to leave Rome altogether.

This led to the Conflict of the Orders, known also as the Struggle of the Orders, which lasted from 494 BC to 287 BC. It was during this time that the plebeians were able to attain political power, in the form of the Council of the Plebs, which was a legislative assembly that made laws affecting the plebeian class.

At the end of the conflict, the Lex Hortensia was passed, which meant that all laws enacted by this Council applied to all Roman citizens, the patricians included. One importance of the Conflict is that it contributed greatly in the development of the Constitution of the Roman Republic.

Gaius Gracchus, tribune of the people, presiding over the Plebeian Council.

Gaius Gracchus, tribune of the people, presiding over the Plebeian Council. ( Public Domain )

Prestige without Power

Nevertheless, the patricians were still able to maintain some political power. Over time, however, the fortunes of some patrician families waned, and its members no longer occupied positions of influence. At the same time, some of the plebeians were able to improve their lot in society. As a result, new patrician families were created. Julius Caesar, for example, created new patrician families from the plebeian class so as to strengthen his own position. The patrician class existed well into the Byzantine period, though by this time, it was a title of prestige without much real power attached to it.

Top image: Cicero attacks the conspirator in the senate ( Public Domain )

By Wu Mingren

References

ancient-rome.com, 2017. Ancient Rome Law & Politics. [Online]
Available at: http://ancient-rome.com/law_f.htm

csuimages.sjsu.edu, 2017. Social Classes of Ancient Rome: Patricians, Plebians, and Slaves. [Online]
Available at: http://csuimages.sjsu.edu/gallery/oldworld/ancientrome/socialclass/index.html

Devillier Donegan Enterprises, 2006. Patricians. [Online]
Available at: http://www.pbs.org/empires/romans/empire/patricians.html

Livy, History of Rome [Online]
[Roberts, W. M., (trans.), 1905. Livy’s History of Rome .]
Available at: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/

Schmitz, L., 1875. Patricii, from 'A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities'. [Online]
Available at: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/SMIGRA*/Patricii.html

Siteseen Ltd., 2015. Patricians. [Online]
Available at: http://www.tribunesandtriumphs.org/roman-life/patricians.htm

Wasson, D. L., 2014. Patrician. [Online]
Available at: https://www.ancient.eu/Patrician/

Comments

Roberto Peron's picture

Good article!  One can only hope that the present day Patricians will soon meet their demise as they’ve pretty much made a mess of things all around.

 

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