Famous Seneca chief of the Iroquois league, Red Jacket, political negotiator and critic of European religion, speaking to crowd

Iroquois League: The Ancient and Powerful Union of Six Nations

(Read the article on one page)

The Iroquois, known also as the Haudenosaunee (which means People Building a Long House ), were a powerful and important Native American confederacy located in the northeastern part of North America. During the colonial period, this confederacy was known to the French as the ‘Iroquois League’, and later as the ‘Iroquois Confederacy’. On the other hand, they were known to the English as the ‘Five Nations’, and, after 1722, as the ‘Six Nations’. The six nations that make up the Iroquois League are the Mohawk, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca and Tuscarora (as the sixth nation of this confederacy), which are tribes that are linguistically related.

Warfare and violence between tribes

The Iroquois tribes are said to have occupied the area around modern day New York, and had developed from the local cultures dating back to the 11 th century A.D. Inter-group aggression seems to have arisen between this period and approximately 1400 AD, perhaps due to increasing competition for resources as a result of rising population densities. It has been claimed that many archaeological sites from this period show signs of warfare and violence. This image of a period of continuous warfare between the Iroquois tribes is also reflected in Iroquois oral tradition.   

Engraving based on a drawing by Champlain of his 1609 voyage. It depicts a battle between Iroquois and Algonquian tribes near Lake Champlain

Engraving based on a drawing by Champlain of his 1609 voyage. It depicts a battle between Iroquois and Algonquian tribes near Lake Champlain ( public domain )

One strategy that was employed in order to survive through these harsh times was for smaller tribes to cooperate so as to increase their chances of survival. Thus, smaller villages coalesced into much larger palisaded villages, which increased the security of the individual villages involved. It has been suggested that such a strategy was the precursor to the formation of the Iroquois League.

Deganawida, the Great Peacemaker

According to Iroquois oral tradition, the period of violence was finally ended by a man known as the Great Peacemaker, who is said to have come from the north. The spiritual name of the Great Peacemaker is said to be Deganawida, which means ‘Two Rivers Flowing Together’. This name, however, is rarely mentioned aloud, out of respect for him. It was the Great Peacemaker, along with the Mohawk chief, Hiawatha (meaning ‘He Who Combs’), who brought the message of peace of the chief of the five Iroquois tribes.

Meeting of Hiawatha and Deganawida by Sanford Plummer

Meeting of Hiawatha and Deganawida by Sanford Plummer ( public domain )

According to one legend, Hiawatha was originally a cannibal from the Onondaga tribe. Once, the Great Peacemaker was watching the cannibal through a hole in the roof whilst he was preparing to cook his latest victim. The cannibal, seeing the Great Peacemaker’s face reflected in the pot, thought that that was his own image. He was struck by the realisation that such a beautiful face was incompatible with the horrendous practice of cannibalism. He immediately gave up cannibalism, and went out to dispose of the corpse. When he returned to his lodge, he encountered the Great Peacemaker, and became his disciple.

Todadaho accepts peace

The Great Peacemaker’s new disciple was then sent to confront his chief, Todadaho and remove the snakes from his hair (for it is said that Todadaho’s hair contained a tangle of snakes). As a result of this deed, the Great Peacemaker’s disciple became known as Hiawatha. Todadaho is said to have been the last of the five chiefs to accept the message of the Great Peacemaker.

Iroquois painting of Tadodaho receiving two Mohawk chiefs

Iroquois painting of Tadodaho receiving two Mohawk chiefs ( public domain )

The council of the chiefs

When the task of bringing peace was accomplished, the laws and customs of the newly-formed confederacy had to be established. This was achieved by a council of fifty chiefs who were elected by the clan mothers (the five Iroquois nations were matrilineal, matrilocal societies). Additionally, the Confederacy chiefs would meet annually to restate these laws and customs (now known as the Book of the Great Law), as well as to settle any conflicts that may have occurred during the past year.

The relations between each member group and between the League as a unit and outsiders were also determined by this Council. The individual League members, however, were allowed to act freely when dealing with outsiders on their own, so long as the interests of the entire League were kept. When a decision is to be made by the Council, the issue would first be discussed amongst the Mohawk, and then amongst the Seneca, both of whom are called ‘Door-keepers’, as they are the eastern and western-most groups of the League. The issue would next be discussed amongst the Oneida, and then amongst the Caguyga, known together as the ‘Younger Brothers’. Finally, the issue would be discussed amongst the Onondaga, the ‘Fire-keepers’. Decisions had to be unanimous, and the fact that each chief had the power to veto an issue is said to have helped ensure the equality of each chief and his opinion.

Comments

Tracing my husband's family tree. I hope to find more information on Alexander White, 1842-1914, buried in St Regis Falls NY.

Register to become part of our active community, get updates, receive a monthly newsletter, and enjoy the benefits and rewards of our member point system OR just post your comment below as a Guest.

Human Origins

Photo of Zecharia Sitchin (left)(CC0)Akkadian cylinder seal dating to circa 2300 BC depicting the deities Inanna, Utu, and Enki, three members of the Anunnaki.(right)
In a previous 2-part article (1), the authors wrote about the faulty associations of the Sumerian deities known as the Anunnaki as they are portrayed in the books, television series, and other media, which promotes Ancient Astronaut Theory (hereafter “A.A.T.”).

Ancient Places

Caves of Loltun, Mexico
It goes on speak about the challenges and wonders of Columbus’s voyage to the new lands known today as the Caribbean. It even goes on to mention Columbus’s blunder in assuming that this newly discovered land was India when in fact it was what we know today as the Bahamas.

Opinion

Hopewell mounds from the Mound City Group in Ohio. Representative image
During the Early Woodland Period (1000—200 BC), the Adena people constructed extensive burial mounds and earthworks throughout the Ohio Valley in Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and West Virginia. Many of the skeletal remains found in these mounds by early antiquarians and 20th-Century archaeologists were of powerfully-built individuals reaching between 6.5 and eight feet in height (198 cm – 244 cm).

Our Mission

At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained.

The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe.

We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives.

By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. 

Ancient Image Galleries

View from the Castle Gate (Burgtor). (Public Domain)
Door surrounded by roots of Tetrameles nudiflora in the Khmer temple of Ta Phrom, Angkor temple complex, located today in Cambodia. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
Cable car in the Xihai (West Sea) Grand Canyon (CC BY-SA 4.0)
Next article