Raphael: A Renaissance Artist More Versatile than Michelangelo and More Prolific than Leonardo?
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (known more commonly as Raphael) was a painter and architect who lived in Italy between the late 15th and early 16th centuries, during a period known as the High Renaissance. According to the website of the National Gallery, Raphael has been recognized for centuries as “the supreme High Renaissance painter, more versatile than Michelangelo and more prolific than their older contemporary Leonardo.”
Raphael’s Early Life
Raphael was born in 1483 in the town of Urbino, in the Marche region, which lies on the east coast of Italy. Raphael’s father was Giovanni Santi, who worked as a painter for Federigo III da Montefeltro, the Duke of Urbino at that time. As a young boy, Raphael had helped his father with the painting of some pieces for the duke’s court. The time spent in and around the Duke of Urbino’s court also resulted in Raphael picking up proper manners and social skills, which was an uncommon thing amongst artists of that period.
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Portrait of a Young Man , 1514, lost during WWII. Possible self-portrait by Raphael. ( Public Domain )
When Raphael was 11 or 12 years old, Giovanni Santi died, leaving his son an orphan (Raphael’s mother had died when he was 7 or 8 years old, and Giovanni Santi re-married). Thus, Raphael came under the guardianship of an uncle, a priest by the name of Bartolomeo. The earliest known example of Raphael’s work was produced around this time of the artist’s life, a self-portrait that he painted at the age of 15 or 16. In addition, Giovanni Santi’s workshop continued to be in operation, under the management of Raphael, who was probably working together with his stepmother.
Where Raphael Presented His Talent
Around 1500, Raphael became an apprentice at the workshop of Pietro Perugino, an Umbrian Master. The apprenticeship lasted for 4 years, and Perugino had a strong influence on the early works of Raphael. Following this apprenticeship, Raphael left for Florence, where he was heavily influenced by the style of Fra Bartolomeo. Another famous artist who exerted an influence on Raphael’s works during this time was Leonardo da Vinci, who had returned to Florence from 1500 to 1506. In spite of these various stylistic influences, Raphael maintained his own unique style, which is most visible in a 1507 painting called La belle jardinière .
La belle jardinière (1507) by Raphael. ( Public Domain )
Raphael’s next stop was the Vatican in Rome, where he moved to in 1508. The remainder of Raphael’s life would be spent there. Raphael received his first commission from Pope Julius II. He was to do a fresco in what was to be the Pope’s private library in the Vatican Palace. This room became known as the Stanza della Segnatura and is one of the four ‘Raphael Rooms.’ As the Pope was impressed by Raphael’s work when it was completed, more commissions came his way. Julius, however, died when the second stanza was being painted. Fortunately for Raphael, Julius’ successor, Leo X, was also impressed by the artist, so he allowed him to continue his work. Raphael’s best known works, including The School of Athens and the Disputa, can be found in these rooms.
Disputation of Holy Sacrament (1509-1510) by Raphael. ( Public Domain )
Whilst Raphael was in Rome, another great painter, Michelangelo, was also there. The latter was commissioned to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and this masterpiece had an influence on Raphael’s own style when he was working on the Raphael Rooms. Raphael’s ability to absorb different styles from various other painters is said to have annoyed Michelangelo, who even accused Raphael of plagiarism.
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The Miraculous Draught of Fishes , 1515, one of the seven remaining Raphael Cartoons for tapestries for the Sistine Chapel. ( Public Domain )
Raphael’s Death By ‘Excessive Passion’
On April 6, 1520, Raphael died suddenly at the age of 37. According to the 16th century biographer, Giorgio Vasari, Raphael’s death was caused by excessive passion. During that time, the accepted medical view was that the human body is composed of humous, and a person’s health depended on the balance of these elements. Therefore, as a result of Raphael’s excessive passion, his humors were said to be destabilized, causing him to fall ill, and ultimately resulting in his death. As it seems that the only available account of Raphael’s life comes from Vasari, one would probably not get to the truth of the matter. Raphael’s funeral was held at the Vatican, followed by the interment of his remains in the Pantheon.