A Sámi family  in front of goahti and lavvu housing, early 1900s, Norway

A Window into the Traditional Sami Culture: Reindeer and a Worldview

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The Sámi are an indigenous people with a rich cultural history. They have lived in northern Europe for thousands of years. The area they live in, Sápmi, includes the northern sectors of Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Kola Peninsula. Although they are often regarded as one people, there has long been a difference in settlement patterns and living practices amongst the Sámi.

The Ancient Origins of the Sámi People

Elaborate petroglyphs, including motifs of zoomorphs (often elks and reindeer), boats, and anthropomorphs show that the Sámi ancestors lived along the coast of the Arctic ocean in northern Norway 10,000 years ago. Later evidence of human settlement has been found all-over Sápmi.

Petroglyphs, Häljesta, Vastmanland, Sweden

Petroglyphs, Häljesta, Vastmanland, Sweden ( Wikimedia Commons )

Two thousand years ago, the Sámi inhabited all of the area we now call Finland. The oldest documented information regarding the Sámi people is dated to 98 AD by the Roman historian Tacitus, in which they are referred to as the fenni hunting people in the far north . In 500 AD, Chinese documents show there was a people living in the area of modern day Sápmi who used "deer" for transport and dairy. The next time the Sámi appeared in print was 555 AD, by the Greek historian, Procopius, who called Scandinavia Thule and the inhabitants skirdfinns. 

The Source of the Name Sámi

The Sámi people, also known as Sami and Saami. Were previously known as Lapps and Laplanders. As with many ancient cultures, these terms have become outdated (and less than politically correct). In modern Scandinavian languages "Lapp" means a patch of clothing that must be mended and thus it suggests that Sami wear patched clothes. Laplander is not specific enough as there are people who are not Sami who live in the Lapland area and also Sami who do not reside in this area. The word Sámi, is likely of a Proto-Finnic origin and has often been translated to mean "land."

The Sámi language contains a rich vocabulary for words related to nature and the environment, with precise terms describing elements such as land, water, and snow. They reportedly also have such varied and precise terms related to reindeer description, that in a herd of several thousand animals only one will fit a particular description of fur, antlers, sex and age.

Sámi with reindeer, Finnmark, Norway (1890-1900)

Sámi with reindeer, Finnmark, Norway (1890-1900) ( Wikimedia Commons )

The rich and diverse vocabulary related to nature in general and reindeer specifically show the importance of these elements in the traditional Sámi life.

A Glimpse into Traditional Sámi Worldview

Traditional Sámi religion can be described as a polytheistic paganism. Due to the largeness of Sápmi, there are differences seen in religious as well as nonreligious aspects of life. The oldest beliefs are associated with animism and  a close connection to the earth, as depicted in the ancestral rock art.

Pantheism and a strong personal spirituality connected to daily life are key elements of traditional Sámi spirituality.

As in many cultures, the Sámi divide the cosmos into upper, middle, and lower worlds. Sacrifices and special rituals allow humans to access the different worlds.

In traditional Sámi belief,  the Upper World is associated with the South, warmth, life, and the color white. This is the world of the Sun (female) and the Earth Mother figure Máttaráhkká.

The Middle World can be described as the world of everyday life for the Sámi. It consists of humans and some animals, such as bears. The color of the Middle World is red.

The Middle World is separated from the Underworld by a river of blood. This river is crossed in one direction by souls of the dead and in another direction by souls of the newly born as they return to the world of the living. The Underworld is inhabited by creatures that dive such as otters, loons, and seals. It is associated with the North, cold, bubbling springs, deep caves, and the color black.

Chart of the three worlds in ancient Sámi spirituality

Chart of the three worlds in ancient Sámi spirituality ( Mulk & Bayliss-Smith 2006: 96 )

The Sámi shaman, noaidi, was the mediator for communication between the different worlds. The use of drums, chanting, and sacred objects allowed these messages to take place.

The shamanic drums are very important painted skins portraying key concepts of the Sámi beliefs. Often the three worlds are depicted. Sometimes images of three female deities, the daughters of Máttaráhkká are also displayed.

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