150,000-Year-Old Pipes in China

150,000-Year-Old Pipes Baffle Scientists in China: Out of Place in Time?

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By Tara MacIsaac Epoch Times

Oopart (out of place artifact) is a term applied to dozens of prehistoric objects found in various places around the world that seem to show a level of technological advancement incongruous with the times in which they were made. Ooparts often frustrate conventional scientists, delight adventurous investigators open to alternative theories, and spark debate.

In a mysterious pyramid in China’s Qinghai Province near Mount Baigong are three caves filled with pipes leading to a nearby salt-water lake. There are also pipes under the lake bed and on the shore. The iron pipes range in size, with some smaller than a toothpick. The strangest part is that they may be about 150,000 years old.

Dating done by the Beijing Institute of Geology determined these iron pipes were smelted about 150,000 years ago, if they were indeed made by humans, according to Brian Dunning of Skeptoid.com. 

And if they were made by humans, history as it is commonly viewed would have to be re-evaluated.

The dating was done using thermoluminescence, a technique that determines how long ago crystalline mineral was exposed to sunlight or heated. Humans are only thought to have inhabited the region for the past 30,000 years. Even within the known history of the area, the only humans to inhabit the region were nomads whose lifestyle would not leave any such structures behind.

The state-run news agency  Xinhua in China reported  on the pyramid, the pipes, and the research began by a team scientists sent to investigate in 2002. 

Though some have since tried to explain the pipes as a natural phenomenon, Yang Ji, a research fellow at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, told Xinhua the pyramid may have been built by intelligent beings. He did not dismiss the theory that ancient extraterrestrials may be responsible, saying this theory is “understandable and worth looking into … but scientific means must be employed to prove whether or not it is true.”

Another theory is that it was built by prehistoric humans with techniques lost to humans of a later period. 

The pipes lead into a salty lake, though a twin lake nearby contains freshwater. The surrounding landscape is strewn with what Xinhua described as “strangely shaped stones.” Rocks protrude from the ground like broken pillars.

The head of the publicity department at the local Delingha government told Xinhua the pipes were analyzed at a local smeltery and 8 percent of the material could not be identified. The rest was made up of ferric oxide, silicon dioxide, and calcium oxide. The silicon dioxide and calcium oxide are products of long interaction between the iron and surrounding sandstone, showing the ancient age of the pipes. Liu Shaolin, the engineer who did the analysis, told Xinhua: “This result has made the site even more mysterious.”

“Nature is harsh here,” he said. “There are no residents let alone modern industry in the area, only a few migrant herdsmen to the north of the mountain.”

To further add to the mystery, Zheng Jiandong, a geology research fellow from the China Earthquake Administration  told state-run newspaper People’s Daily in 2007  that some of the pipes were found to be highly radioactive.  

Other Theories

Jiandong said iron-rich magma may have risen from deep in the Earth, bringing the iron into fissures where it would solidify into tubes. Though he admitted, “There is indeed something mysterious about these pipes.” He cited the radioactivity as an example of the strange qualities of the pipes.

Others have said iron sediments may have washed into the fissures, carried with water during floods.

Though Xinhua and other publications in China have referred to a pyramid or even a mysterious pyramid in which the pipes were found, some have said it was a pyramid-shaped natural formation. 

Another theory is that the pipes are fossilized tree roots.  Xinmin Weekly reported in 2003  that scientists found plant matter in an analysis of the pipes, and they also found what looked like tree rings. The article related the finding to a geological theory that in certain temperatures and under certain chemical conditions, tree roots can undergo diagenesis (transformation of soil into rock) and other processes that can produce iron formations.

Reports on the tree-root explanation for the so-called Baigong pipes often lead back to this Xinmin Weekly article or lack citation. It’s unclear exactly how well-supported this theory is in relation to the Baigong pipes.

An article published  in the Journal of Sedimentary Research in 1993 describes fossilized tree roots in South Louisiana in the United States.


150000 years? Omg isn't there an error determination of this "150000" years? There said that these pipes are radioactive so its chemistry may decomposite and warp the carbon test results. Anyways, I'm not a scientist, maybe that result is true.

It could be a volcanic tube or some other unusual rock formation, we shouldn't jump to conclusion that it's plumbing....humans (homo sapiens) haven't even been around 150K years, we were still semi-ape-like creatures...

I am fairly sure that Homo Neanderthal and his neighbors would object to being referred to as semi ape like creatures. Better check the time line of Epochs and Eras against Evolutionary timelines for Hominids.

Actually, that is well within the range many scientist put us as being genetically human. Most say closer to 200,000 years. Still, when you look at these things it is obviously a natural formation even if it isn't obvious how it came to be.

Tsurugi's picture

....and yet we should remember that many of the ruins of ancient sites we know of today appeared to be natural formations before someone discovered differently and cleaned them up.

A good example is Cholula Tlachihualtepetl in Mexico. It looks like a hill with a spanish cathedral on top. But that "hill" is a friggin' giant pyramid.

How about the Homo Capensis ? How long have they been around ? From what I have read about those critters, if in fact they do or did exist, there are literally hundreds of their skulls surviving. I would assume other bones survived also. The skulls are unlike our human skulls in several ways. First, they have an elongated structure. The bony structure is thicker and heavier than human skulls. The cranial cavity is 25% to 33% larger than humans, indicating they may have had a larger brain and consequently more intelligent than humans. Instead of 3 parietal lobes that homo Sapiens have, the Homo Capensis has only 2 lobes. The eye sockets are larger and rounder and more shallow than human eye sockets, and at the rear of the skull there are a hole or two that some surmise nerves or blood vessels passed through, possibly to nourish the larger brain. DNA has been obtained and tested, and the preliminary results indicate that these critters are NOT human, and if they did mate with a human, the first generation offspring would be sterile. Now, here we are, into the 21st century, and we are just getting scientific evidence that Capensis exists. How many other critters exist in heaven, and on Earth, that we don't know about ? Scientists estimate that about 13.5 billion years have gone by since the Big Bang. How many other Big Bangs occurred prior, in the sea of time we call Eternity ? It is impossible to tell what artifacts of the past still exist, and what may be discovered. To dismiss out of hand any possibility without investigation is the height of ignorance and arrogance.

homo capensis is a load of crap. there has never been a homo capensis in science. in 1913 they found the boskop man which was a skull that was human but with some defects. many claimed it was a new species but there is no evidence to confirm or back the claim.also larger brains do not mean higher intelligence. for example dolphins have larger brains than we do. now while they may be intelligent they dont use tools and form societies and civilization or do science or anything near our mental capabilities. so brain size doesnt necessarily prove intelligence. a much better prediction of intelligent is brain to body size ratios but even that isnt perfect.

Well Izzy, it seems that these large skulled hominids, the Homo Capensis, might have been intelligent enough to hide themselves successfully from the murderous Homo Sapiens. Tell me, if you had a rifle in your hands and you saw one, what would you do ? The facts are that the preliminary DNA study has been done and it shows this critter is not human. Let's see what followup DNA tests show, and go from there. Time will tell and neither what you or I think will change the facts. Just don't expect the final decision to be made while you or I am still drawing breath in our current incarnations.

Your assertion that brain size does not indicate level of intellect -- is true, to an extent. Creation and use of tools doesn't either, considering how humans have used tools to control, destroy and manipulate the natural order of the environment and other living things. True intellect is not just knowledge of how things work, but also why. Human based knowledge without wisdom of how to properly use it is NOT true intellect. Humans have only six recognized senses, while other high mammals may have far more senses that make them symbiotic with the environment in which they exist. They don't need tools or machines to live complete lives humans could not even imagine. Modern humans are not native to this planet, but have been crossbred with other outworld species

I would like citations for this. Who has the hundred skull, how complete are they, how did we determine parietal lobe structures, provenonce of the DNA. What is described seemes like a hyper visual sociopath genius.

Looking for definitive evidence of ETs, highly advanced ancient civilizations or peoples on Earth, would be a fool's errand. Such evidence that does not fit accepted scientific dogma is spirited away to dusty museum warehouses or destroyed -- at any rate, it is officially denied

This species don't appear to be real I am afraid. The cranial cavity was an estimate and in H Sapiens range anyway. Apparently collectors selected just big samples and ignored small ones. Science seems to say this is just H Sapiens, while a whole bunch of pseudo-science sites continue the myth...

A very interesting piece of information.


“fossilized casts of trees, washed into the Qaidam basin as flood debris, and subsequently incorporated into sandstone. The Chinese scientists who made this final determination had not only the geologic background to confirm the deposition process, but they also found the original organic material in the “pipes” and found fossilized tree rings.”

- See more at: http://ancientaliensdebunked.com/these-pipes-are-clean/#sthash.yqXg1Sym....

Tsurugi's picture

Keep in mind that tree roots--roots of any kind actually--have a particular fondness for modern artificial piping that was most certainly made by humans. I have worked on a number of residential restoration projects, and came across plenty of evidence pointing to the fact that finding tree roots within pipe-like configurations by no means suggests that there was never a pipe there at all; it simply meant the roots had free space within which to grow and within which there was often water and concentrated mineral nutrients leaked from the surrounding soil.

You are exactly right. Artificial pipe deniers seem to forget tree roots DO NOT grow in straight lines, but will take up empty spaces within abandoned pipes and conduits. Once the roots become petrified they will seem to be a natural formation that accumulated iron deposits as an outer shell. I am amazed at how modern scientist and academics are so arrogant to think humans today are the apex of evolution. They never seem to accept there were highly advanced civilizations going back millions, if not billions of years, into a past long wiped away by natural geological processes

So we can trace life back through fossils hundreds of millions of years, even to before dinosaurs, but you are claiming the evidence of advanced human civilisations (fossilised remains, buildings, artefacts having a greater potential legacy than plant eating animals) were erased by plate tectonics, leaving stuff both before and after preserved? Life on Earth has certainly evolved complexity then had knock backs and taken different routes (e.g. Mammals replacing dinosaurs as dominant large land animals) and there are gaps in the evolutionary history of man, but there is just no evidence for your theory (and even a theory should have evidence supporting it, or it is just fantasy). Everything suggests man has been 'modern' for a few hundred thousand years, with the potential to be as he is now in terms of achievements, and started showing signs of being a smart ape maybe a few million years ago (e.g. Cave burials just found in Africa)

Tsurugi's picture


Err....no? Perhaps you should read my post again. I said nothing about plate tectonics, or ancient advanced civilizations, or dinosaurs, or any of that. I said roots can and do grow inside man-made pipes, I have seen this myself. The end.

However, seeing as how you've responded so energetically to my post--albeit not to anything I actually said in that post--I feel I should reply in turn to yours(though I hope you'll forgive me for sticking to the actual content of your post; I'm afraid I lack your imagination).

Fossil beds can span tens of millions, sometimes hundreds of millions of years. Other times they record a single frozen instant; these are usually the result of some catastrophic event.
All of known human history where we have been advanced enough to build things has spanned no more than 10-12k years, a tiny, miniscule blip in comparison to deep geological time in which we find fossils of dinosaurs, etc. Advancement comes quickly, and unless it lasts millions of years, has far less a chance to become specially preserved like some of the life of earlier epochs.

Still, perhaps the evidence is out there somewhere, still waiting to be found...? Perhaps some of it has already been found, but went unrecognized for what it was. Who knows?

Plate tectonics is the last thing I would think of as causing the obliteration of possible previous advanced cultures. Large impacts from space would be my guess. Such an event would destroy a civilization, but would possibly preserve some of it as well. But the preserved bits would have to eventually end up being exposed on the surface for us to have found it, unless we found it completely by chance in a mine or something. They may be there, but buried under miles of basaltic lava or sediment from tidal waves.

I am not claiming any of this is true, I am just saying it is by no meams out of the realm of possibility. Absence of evidence, and so on. :)


I’m surprised you didn’t mention Michael Cremo’s research.  I assume you are fimiliar with it.


Have trouble taking anyone seriously when a Google search of their name brings up 'people also searched for David Childress'... Although he looks a little more serious (about himself at least) than the imbiciles on Ancient Aliens, who are obviously now only in it for the money and struggle not to laugh as they present yet another bottom of the barrel theory!

I haven’t read any of his books, but based on his reputation, speeches, and examples of his findings, I’d say Cremo is meticulous in his research and keeps any speculation regarding his findings practically under lock and key.  He also gives a wide berth to his personal beliefs when dealing with academia, presenting distilled facts from which others are left to draw their own conclusions.

Tsurugi's picture

Heya Rizzman  :D

I thought about it, but decided it wasn't necessary to make my point.

Tsurugi's picture

@Vanderbil Covington


+1 for sarcasm. Cheers!

You are exactly right. Artificial pipe deniers seem to forget tree roots DO NOT grow in straight lines, but will take up empty spaces within abandoned pipes and conduits. Once the roots become petrified they will seem to be a natural formation that accumulated iron deposits as an outer shell. I am amazed at how modern scientist and academics are so arrogant to think humans today are the apex of evolution. They never seem to accept there were highly advanced civilizations going back millions, if not billions of years, into a past long wiped away by natural geological processes

Tree and/or plant roots DO NOT GROW IN STRAIGHT LINES. Those petrified roots took advantage of moisture in the pipes (actually conduits) while the roots were still growing. When the pipe metal eroded away, the roots remained until fossilization was all that remained. Indeed, there was a very ancient subterranean civilization that may or may not still exist. From every culture on every continent, there are accounts of human and/or hominid species far below the surface

Sorry, but you are making a claim with pretty much zero evidence based on a false statement. Nature DOES do straight lines. Just look at columnar basalt etc. Sedimentary rocks are laid down in fairly flat layers. And this article does NOT say the pipes are straight lines. It DOES say they are all different sizes, just like tree roots. The 'pipe wall' thicknesses vary even in the cross section shown.

I was referring to roots not growing in straight lines. The pipes shown were straight, as shown in the cave picture. Indeed, the pipes were of varying in diameter and thickness. This is further proof they were of very ancient origins and intended purpose. I never said the Earth was around before or at the time of the Big Bang (Act of Creation)

I don't mean to come across as rude and do enjoy a good debate, but extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence and you really are not presenting any...

Even the 'young creation' claims made by extreme christian 'thinkers' (which many are obviously not doing very effectively) have some writings they can point to as 'evidence' supporting their case, although the writings are not contemporary to the time they speak of (and are probably borrowed from other far older religions in many cases, e.g. the flood story may well have been taught to early jews who attended 'school' in Sumeria) and they choose to ignore other written/verbal works, monuments, fossils and most of modern science (to the point where their use of a PC to type their comments seems hypocritical).

The most likely explanation ought to be the starting point. Rule out that one then explore the next most likely. Once you have ruled out the probable, then you are left with the improbable - all the way from 150,000 year old human culture irrigating an area through to visiting aliens who, despite having spacecraft, feel the need to build primitive pipes.

You seem to be starting with some of the least likely explanations and presenting no evidence, saying in 'it all got lost under the continental plates' when in fact there is far older evidence in plain sight (e.g. dinosaur bones falling out of cliff sides or scattered in deserts that are 150 - 300m years old) that did not end up under a continental plate?

All I see in the photo is a cross section which shows varied wall thickness, hinting at a natural origin. The fact that these all vary in thickness rather than being uniform again suggests a natural origin, as that is exactly how tree roots from. I don't see a photo that shows long lengths of regular thickness (both wall thickness and overall circumference) pipe. Nature does straight lines (e.g. fractures in rock, laying down of sediment and even tunnelling animals can do fairly straight lines) and tree roots would follow this line of least resistance. Any minerals that later wash into the area would also follow the course of least resistance and fill in the gaps around the tree roots.

All the evidence, going back millions and even billions of years, shows evolution of life on earth (sometimes steady, sometimes over a few generations due to certain events/mutations, sometimes coming to dead ends or extinction events) and mankind being the most technologically advanced by a long long way. Some apes bash nuts with rocks, some birds build complex nests, some fish set stones and shells in complex patterns, termites build (on their scale) huge skyscrapers, wasps make paper pulp etc etc but modern man is different. We have changed the face of the planet so much that we even have a geological 'era' named after us. We seem to be the apex in terms of technology. We are not the most successful by a long way - e.g. dinosaurs were around longer, insects are more numerous etc. In fact we might be ones of 'natures' great failures as we seem to be destroying the very ecosystem we depend on and are likely to take most other complex life down with us! Or, we might reach the stars and find we are not alone?

It's much more likely that the dating technique is wrong.

The Doctor needs to do a better job at hiding his work from when he goes back in time and to the future, etc.

Some of you are way too closed minded. First of all isn't it kind of a miracle that Earth even exists??? And contains life within life?? So why is the idea of Earth being home to other advanced life before humans such a rediculous and obsurd theory? It's weird to me that humans, made of limitless cells and born with infinite untapped brain power, can be so closed minded and unable to invite new ideas into their perspective. Wow. Lets not forget the major question, where did we as indeviduals come from? That question is proof that answers should have no limit to the imagination... Yes it IS possible there are and have been other intelligent beings before humans.

"It's weird to me that humans, made of limitless cells and born with infinite untapped brain power, can be so closed minded and unable to invite new ideas into their perspective"

I love this quote :)

We have a very good idea of human evolution, although we might be missing a few steps and keep finding older versions of our more ape like ancestors. There is no evidence at all for advanced civilisation 150,000 years ago, let alone millions. There seems to be some evidence of civilisation around the time of the last ice age, but we are talking building stone temples and trading etc (at a time we thought humans were huddling in caves) rather than computers and planes etc.

Human scientist have an idea of the evolutionary progression of Homo Sapiens but this only includes fossil remains in present geological strata. There have been many changes the surface strata due to complete upheavals and subductions of tectonic continental plates. Even the sea floors are acting as conveyors due the subduction carrying artifacts into the molten interior of the planet. Just because there is no longer evidence of million plus year old artifacts does not mean they never existed

angieblackmon's picture

I'm still hung up on the beginning of the article....oopart. LOL

love, light and blessings


It‘s a flase news.

Have any of these "scientists considered the easy and obvious answer to this question? You know, the one that says that maybe, just maybe, their dating methods aren't exactly accurate. (There are a lot of unproven assumptions regarding C14 and other radioactive dating techniques. The first of which is that there is a bench mark amount of a given element in a specimen which will deteriorate at exactly a proscribed rate every time every where regardless of the environment or actions upon that environment.)

There's no mystery here, just poor "science".

riiight... because the earth is obviously only 6,000 years old.

Tsurugi's picture

Don't assume that's what he's talking about. He might simply be questioning the validity of dating techniques(as do I). There is no mention in his comment re: 6k creationism, and to assume that questioning the prevailing paradigm can only equate to a promotion of creationism is a false duality that is extremely damaging to the overall discourse.

Either way , it is a very old pipe for which ever period in time indeed.
Explain , channels where the appropriate form of water channeling during the age before us ,
where does the pipe then come in?

Finally information is becoming public about our ancient past that is destroying the myth that our present civilization is the first advanced civilization to exist on this planet, there have been quiet a few since the big bang which probable was our first nuclear self destruction of our planet.The truth will be frantically denied by those who have made a good living promoting misinformation over the last 5,000 years.

Our planet was not here at the time of the Big Bang! And all this millions/billions of years of civilisation argument is infinetly less well supported than an argument for the existence of Father Christmas or the Tooth Fairy!

I would think that the combination of salt water, fresh water, and radioactive materials all in the same location would be enough to skew any attempts at dating.

malisa wright

muy bueno los comentarios es para pensar

Hi there.

So, who built PUMA PUNKU? It's in the nw highlands of Bolivia near Lake Titicaca. It's be RCD to at least 17000 ya, possibly older. The skill is not unlike the craftmanship employed at GT in Turkey( that's RCD to appx 9000bce..... So, what were the ancient forefathers in civilisation doing back then, and did they have help, or was it 'acquired knowledge?

Gee, where's the math....hummmmmm..........


Even people like Graham Hancock admit that Puma Punku is not as old as they said. And you can't radio carbon date stone, just organic material.

I think we humans have amnesia of the highest form. We can't even remember or agree on history that merely go back 50 years.

In the world of arcane literature, one of the most enigmatic works to surface is the mysterious Voynich Manuscript. Although Wilfrid Michael Voynich, (1865-1930)
Polish/Lithuanian, American, took possession of the document in 1912, he was certainly not the author. Of the manuscript’s 240 vellum pages, because of numbering gaps, it is believed there were 273 or more pages, originally. The pages have been carbon dated (C14) to the early 14th century, thus, considered authentic but the original author is still as mysterious as the work itself. Nothing is known about where the manuscript originated except it had been owned by an obscure 17th Century alchemist named, Georg Baresch but even he could not interpret it.
The manuscript seems to be a journal of sorts, written by an unknown author, in an unknown script about unknown subjects. Even though not one written letter in the manuscript remotely resembles any known script, the writing displays a probable ductus suggesting it is of a language quite familiar, if not native, to the writer. There have been accusations the script is a “made up” forgery. This conclusion seems more of a default opinion when so-called experts don’t have provable answers and/or the subjects fall outside of accepted paradigms. However, the flow of individual characters, even with subtle variations,-- each letter displays a personal inflection and style that appears peculiar to the writer. This is indicative of ease of intent and execution which a forgery could not duplicate and would become obvious in the overall text. As a another marker, One can see where each line has definitive contrast, (as the writer dipped the pen in ink), indicating a consistent writing speed. Considering the manuscript being a forgery is highly unlikely.
It is very possible the author realized the plant species and other aspects of the region were indeed unusual and recorded them for further research. It also may have been a pharmacopoeia of rare herbal remedies which were available but known only in that region and used by a specific guild of practitioners, possibly alchemy related. Since true alchemy was discredited by contemporary scientist who believed it was nothing more than charlatans attempting to fabricate gold from lead, the original art has been lost. Perhaps some practitioners of the true art included the manuscript as notes for greater work in their library of nostrums.
A few pages do show drawings that resemble wild pansy, maiden fern and a water lily (ref. f2v) but the rest have strange leaf shapes and odd little flower clusters that differ from normal plants. Most plant leaf have a pointed end called, a “drip tip” where rain water and dew condensation are channeled off. However, the manuscript’s plant leaf have no such tips but feature odd leaf shapes inconsistent with normal terrestrial grown plants. This fact supports the plants may have grown in closed environments where there is very little or no rain fall or significant dew formation. Some have conjectured colouring was added at a later date of origination. The green colour in the pictures may have been added for aesthetics rather than an accurate presence of chlorophyll in plants or grasses(?) Root systems depicted as would normally grow in fairly dense soil. There is also a lack of full grown trees anywhere in the text.
One may see a resemblance in Charles Darwin’s diary as he explored the Galapagos Islands, making descriptive notations and drawings of plant life and animals he encountered there.
From a cursory observation, One may consider the manuscript as meticulous notes either taken from direct observation or copied in part from a much larger work. It can be safety deduced from the detailed drawings, the author’s source apparently possessed extensive knowledge of plant structure and biology.
This section concludes with what could be likened to a kind of almanac and/or zodiac which may have something to do with seasonal plant growth trends and harvesting methods.
Further on, the author includes drawings of small groups of females sitting or standing in tub-like apparatus or containers connected by odd pipes or duct work. From these conduits appears to flow with water from one to another. One of the most revealing pictures depicts what appears to be naked females descending below the surface terrain . This does not seem an allegorical descent but a literal entrance to a subterranean region. See f75r.
There seems to be an opening where hills or mountains are exposed to the sky but below this opening appears to be a path on which these women descend into the depths(?),-- but to where? The fact every page has these naked females may indicate the author may also have been female.
Pages f78r and f78v indicate a source of water comes from a tree or some kind of plant from which it flows copiously through conduits or pipes. On page f78v, the women seem to be in, or on a structure with several window openings near the bottom. In nearly all pages, the women are thigh deep in some green material possibly thick grass or weeds. From depictions in f82r, f82v, f83r and f83v; the women are standing knee deep in small devices filled with water(?) and further indications they are using them as contrivances with which they move about! Some pictures show them in these devices while hand assembling and connecting pipes or conduits. To illustrate they are underground, on page, f84r, women appear to be in a cave where water is issuing from a ceiling of rounded stones or groups of protuberances. The water then flowing down to lower levels where other women with fancy headdresses collect it in vessels. f79v: This picture shows a woman being consumed by a fish at the lower level while others near the top of an elaborate aqueduct system enjoy a “shower“. Note the woman holding a cross. In this section, the only men pictured are in the upper right of pages f80r and f77v.
There is another section where a six page folio (f85v) shows what could be a map of how nine strange realms are connected. In the upper most left, a circular image appears to be an entrance hole with soil strata. Above it, there are mountains and a sun image indicating the entrance is accessible from some surface area. From what could be the bottom, there is a curving bridge leading to something else. There is an arrangement of five apparently large conduits pointing to another central region suggesting a core with many connected pipes. See: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript#mediaviewer/File:Vo...(158).jpg
The last section deals with groups of herbal roots and leaf combinations that have corresponding decorative containers for each group. The rest of the manuscript is a continuous unknown text of 23 pages.
Conclusion: The manuscript seems to describe a unknown realm or possibly subterranean region dominated by a matriarchy employing a technology based on manipulation of water. Considering the population is relatively small, could it be an asylum, penal colony or exalted recluse of some sort? Whether this is a fanciful tale or actual place is a matter of pure conjecture. Without any viable translation of the strange text, it would be impossible to determine veracity or purpose of the work or subjects therein.
I would like to add a note that may or may not be relevant. I have noticed a common theme among the many opinions of those who’ve studied copies of the manuscript, including myself; -- that it seems oddly familiar in some way. Of course, the document has been known and published many times since it’s public introduction, which may account for this familiarity.

Possible links to subterranean origins

What lends some plausibility is the fact there are many cultural accounts of subterranean civilizations from all over the world. In the U.S., the Hopi and Navaho Native Americans claim to have originated from an underground world long ago. There is supposedly the vast and very ancient civilization of Agharta beneath Mt Shasta, where survivors of Lemuria now inhabit. They retreated to this subterranean region when the island sank beneath the Pacific Ocean floor some 40,000 years ago. Skeptics claiming the continent never existed fail to explain the mystery of extensive petroglyphs on the Nasca Plains of Peru, which cannot be seen entirely except from high above ground. Or why some lines end abruptly at the precipice of sheer cliffs on the west coast of South America. Some of those mysterious lines appear as if they originally continued on to terrain further west before the now absent land mass suddenly broken off long ago.
In 1947, the US government sent Admiral Richard E. Byrd on an expedition to the Artic Circle, ostensibly in search of uranium deposits. Byrd came back with a tale of an ancient subterranean civilization with warnings to mankind against continued use of atomic weaponry.
Within the Earth’s surface mantel, there are many enormous caverns and catacombs which could support entire civilizations provided inhabitants possessed sufficient technology to sustain life. Perhaps the manuscript is the result of some ancient explorer’s account of one of these places.
Throughout Earth’s 4.5 billion year history, there have many high civilizations destroyed by catastrophe, each followed by subsequent dark ages. The skeptical scientific community ask why there is no apparent evidence found supporting high civilizations on sunken continents of the ancient past. The answer is simple: Tectonic subduction -- which acts as a natural conveyor, carries submerged artifacts and structures beneath the lithospheric plates.
In nearly every example, during such dark ages, there is little or no recognition or knowledge of the prior civilization(s). Thus, it is a time of ignorance or dark age. From all indications, modern society is emerging from just another dark age, ignorant of mysteries of many lost histories. Although modern scientist are predisposed to discrediting any notion of technological civilizations in the ancient past, there are surviving remnants all over the planet. The problem scientist face is the reality you cannot simply excuse the fact something exist. Earth is well over 4 billion years old, and has hosted many civilizations -- both Earth borne and of extraterrestrial origins. One of the more compelling recent mysteries involves the Voynich Manuscript.
In 2009, the University of Arizona carbon 14 dated velum pages and ink of the codex journal to have originated between 1404 and 1438, proven to be an unsolved enigma for nearly 600 years. Within its velum pages, reveals a subterranean realm where life has existed for untold millenia, hidden, or (more accurately) ignored, by extant surface dwellers.
Who wrote it, when, or even what it says remains a mystery to this day. However, one aspect may be relevant to the aforementioned subject of iron pipes found in China and Indus valley regions. Throughout the manuscript are numerous depictions of individual or grouped pipes and conduits bearing water. Scientist espouse the belief ancient first humans sought shelter in caves. But what if those first(?) humans actually emerged from those caves as passages from deeper subterranean regions that provided protection from a much earlier natural or "other induced" disasters? This planet has far too many mysteries that simply cannot be explained by popularly accepted history.

Hello all.
Mankind, as we know it today, has been present on planet earth for approx.50 million years. Other intelligent species existed here before that, but 50 million years is the current age of mankind... I have it from good authority... Shocked me a bit when this information was passed to me, but years of personal reading and research have done little to dissuade me,,, in fact quite the opposite.


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Ancient Technology

Grinding stone, Dendera Temple, Egypt.
Most people know of the great construction achievements of the dynastic Egyptians such as the pyramids and temples of the Giza Plateau area as well as the Sphinx. Many books and videos show depictions of vast work forces hewing blocks of stone in the hot desert sun and carefully setting them into place.

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At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained.

The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe.

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By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. 

Ancient Image Galleries

View from the Castle Gate (Burgtor). (Public Domain)
Door surrounded by roots of Tetrameles nudiflora in the Khmer temple of Ta Phrom, Angkor temple complex, located today in Cambodia. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
Cable car in the Xihai (West Sea) Grand Canyon (CC BY-SA 4.0)
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