Ravens and Crows have been symbols and played a role in myth since ancient times.

Feathered Tricksters Since the Dawn of Time

(Read the article on one page)

In the Bible, crows and their close cousins, ravens, were called “unclean” and with this unshakable spiritual grey cloud these bullied birds have subsequently been associated with the occult, witchcraft, and death. Neither does Islam offer these homeless birds a safe perch to land, as it holds them as one of the five animals we are “allowed” to destroy.

These two major world religions have mostly rebranded the ancient corvids as being dirty, aggressive, noisy, and destructive creatures. (See, for example, Job 38:41) However, these negative attributes mask the bird’s cleverness and problem-solving skills. Keeping a safe distance from humans is a great example of their wit - and it might be this aloofness that has caused them to penetrate so deeply into social myths, cultural folktales, philosophies, and religions of so many ancient peoples.

It is the case that when we look beyond the beliefs of these two relatively modern religions into the creation myths and folkloric systems of comparative religions, we find a time when these birds were not thought of as being spiritual and environmental menaces. In fact, before falling from grace crows and ravens were ancient superstars, key players in creation stories of the universe, carriers of divine light, and the bringers of life force.

Crows and ravens have not always been seen in a negative light

Crows and ravens have not always been seen in a negative light. ( CC0)

Spiritual Links Between Humans and Ravens and Crows

In creation myths crows and ravens are always magical, semi-divine and able to shape-change into human or animal form, and sometimes into inanimate objects and even pure light. Often perceived as the keepers of secrets, these birds frequently played “the trickster” archetype, focusing on satisfying their own greed, regardless of the requirements of the greater community. But this wasn’t always as negative as it might sound, because in ancient cultures the trickster was the survivor, the wriest and wittiest, and the most charming and inventive.

As far back as 15,000 BC, human beings living in what is now Europe perceived some kind of spiritual relationship with crows and ravens. This is evident in a painting in Lascaux cave in France. Depicting a person with a crow’s head, archeologists see this crow-man as an insight into the totemic beliefs of the people and how they perceived the journey of the soul after death.

The famous shaft scene of Lascaux depicting a man with a crow’s head looking at a bison.

The famous shaft scene of Lascaux depicting a man with a crow’s head looking at a bison. (Peter80/ CC BY SA 2.5 )

In the ambitious 2005 BBC television series,  How Art Made the World, professor of classical art and archeology at the University of Cambridge, Nigel Spivey, postulated that “dot and lattice patterns overlapping the representational images of animals are very similar to hallucinations provoked by sensory-deprivation.” He went so far as to say that “culturally important animals and these hallucinations led to the invention of image-making, or the art of drawing.” (S.W. Gray)

From all the thousands of birds, beasts, insects, and reptiles in their environment, the people of Lascaux chose to paint a human transitioning into crow - and this fact alone cements the importance of these birds in European prehistory.

Textually, the earliest reference to crows and ravens appears in ancient Mesopotamian mythology in the famous poem that is considered the first great work of literature - The Epic of Gilgamesh. Here, crows appear in the creation of humanity after the great flood, when  Utnapishtim sent out a pigeon and a raven to find land. The pigeon returned empty-handed and the raven didn’t return at all; indicating its success in finding land and founding new life on Earth.

Neo-Assyrian clay tablet. Epic of Gilgamesh, Tablet 11: Story of the Flood. Known as the "Flood Tablet" From the Library of Ashurbanipal, 7th century BC.

Neo-Assyrian clay tablet. Epic of Gilgamesh, Tablet 11: Story of the Flood. Known as the "Flood Tablet" From the Library of Ashurbanipal, 7th century BC. (Fæ/ CC BY SA 3.0 )

Tracking the Birds’ Flight Path Through Time

In ancient Greece and Rome, the crow represented the god Apollo, and it was he who changed the color of its feathers from white to black in myths. The flight paths of these birds were important for the  augurs, ancient priests who derived their prophecies from the birds’ routes. Apollo sent out two crows, one east and one west, to establish the position for the scared Omphalos stone which represented the center of the ancient Greek world at Delphi.

In the 1602 works of Spanish friar and professor, Simon Pedro, we learn that this very same creation dynamic is reflected in South America, in Chibcha creation mythologies, where the creator god Chiminigague cast out two black ravens, east and west, spreading light across the world.


Hi there.
Just want to mention that Islam forbid killing animals, except 5 specific species. One of them is a type of Ravens. Not every raven must be killed, only the ones with a mix of black and white feathers, like this one: https://goo.gl/4hcSxW

Register to become part of our active community, get updates, receive a monthly newsletter, and enjoy the benefits and rewards of our member point system OR just post your comment below as a Guest.

Top New Stories

 In the estuary of Achelous Rive Treasure chest
Isla del Coco, or Cocos Island, has been visited for over 300 years by infamous pirates like ‘Benito of the Bloody Sword’ and explorers such as Sir Francis Drake. In more modern times famous treasure hunters like President Franklin Roosevelt have quested this island for what is without question, the largest real life lost treasure ever hoard known to mankind - The Great Treasure of Lima.

Ancient Technology

Our Mission

At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained.

The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe.

We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives.

By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. 

Ancient Image Galleries

View from the Castle Gate (Burgtor). (Public Domain)
Door surrounded by roots of Tetrameles nudiflora in the Khmer temple of Ta Phrom, Angkor temple complex, located today in Cambodia. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
Cable car in the Xihai (West Sea) Grand Canyon (CC BY-SA 4.0)
Next article