Reconstruction drawing of the communal latrines at Housesteads Roman fort (Vercovicium) on Hadrian's Wall. This site is now in the care of English Heritage (2010).

Money Does Not Stink: The Urine Tax of Ancient Rome

(Read the article on one page)

The ancient Romans have passed many traditions on to modern day society, but they certainly had a different perspective on urine. It was seen as much more useful than today. They used it as a cleaning agent for washing their clothes, brushing their teeth as well as for tanning leather.  Ancient laundries even used to collect urine in giant clay pots which were placed out in public for people to relieve themselves. Eventually, so much urine was used and collected that a tax was imposed by the Roman emperor. Pecunia non olet meaning, “money does not stink" was a famous phrase coined as a result of this tax levied by the emperors Nero and Vespasian in the 1st century AD.

Vespasian Aureus Fortuna (75-79 AD)

Vespasian Aureus Fortuna (75-79 AD) ( Wikimedia Commons )

The Uses of Urine in Ancient Rome

While today we flush or urine away without giving it a second thought, in ancient times it was considered a valuable commodity. Urine contains a wide array of important minerals and chemicals such as phosphorus and potassium. The Romans believed that urine would make their teeth whiter and keep them from decaying so they used it as a mouthwash and mixed it with pummis to make toothpaste. In fact, urine was so effective that it was used in toothpastes and mouthwashes up until the 1700s.

As far as the Romans were concerned, the best and therefore the most expensive urine on the market came from the country of Portugal.  It was supposedly the strongest urine in the world and thus, the choice for whitening teeth. Though most people today  would decline the option of a urine-based toothpaste, it actually worked! This is because urine contains ammonia which is used in many household cleaners today. If you leave urine out in an open vat it turns stale and produces ammonia through interaction with the air. In Roman times, this was then used for laundry. Due to the ammonia content, urine was also important for the textiles industry, which was a booming trade during the Roman Empire. Often urine was used to bleach wool or linen and tan leather.

Fullonica (Dyer's Shop) of Veranius Hypsaeus, fresco from Pompeii

Fullonica (Dyer's Shop) of Veranius Hypsaeus, fresco from Pompeii ( Wikimedia Commons )

The "Vectigal Urinae" tax for Urine Collectors

In the first century AD, the Roman emperor Nero levied what was known as the “vectigal urinae”, which translates from Latin into “urine tax”.  This tax was placed on the collection of urine at public urinals, since the lower classes of society had to relieve themselves in small pots which were then emptied into cesspools. Urine was also collected from the public toilets of the upper classes. The buyer of the urine paid the tax, then it was then collected from the cesspools and recycled as a valuable raw material for a number of chemical processes.

Ancient Roman Public Toilets

Ancient Roman Public Toilets ( Wikimedia Commons )

Although the tax was eventually removed, it was reenacted around 70 AD with the succession of emperor Vespasian (ruler of Rome from 69-79 AD).  When Vespasian became Emperor, the Roman Empire had just emerged from a civil war that almost brought about a complete collapse of their world.  On top of that, the empire had not a single silver coin in its treasury.  Known for his love of money and ruthless taxation (which eventually brought the Roman empire out of debt, leaving a surplus in the treasury for the following emperor), Vespasian began the task of repairing and restoring the empire. He began levying a series of taxes to raise funds, one of which was a charge for the collection of urine from public urinals in Rome's Cloaca Maxima (great sewer) system.  The first public toilets in history were even introduced by Vespasian in 74 AD.

Etching showing the Cloaca Maxima (1757), Giovanni Battista Piranesi

Etching showing the Cloaca Maxima (1757), Giovanni Battista Piranesi ( Wikimedia Commons )

Pecunia non olet: Money Does Not Stink

Soon after this urine tax was imposed, Roman wits started calling the local toilets “vespasians". The Urine Tax was considered a disgusting policy by Vespasian's son, and future emperor, Titus. Roman historians Dio Cassius and Suetonius wrote about Vespasian’s unpopular tax in their history books saying that when Titus complained about it, his father reportedly picked up a gold coin and remarked, "Pecunia non olet", or, "Money does not stink”.  The meaning behind this act, of course, was to show that money is not tainted regardless of its origins. This is probably the most famous phrase ever spoken by Vespasian, and is still in use today most commonly to downplay the questionable, or outright illegal, sources of financial gain. Some people in Germany liked the story of the origins of the phrase so much that they even made a family board game of the same name. 

Comments

Wonderful information for educators

Urine Therapy is one of the best health solution today and it's free.

Best?
Based on what?

In ancient Chinese Medicine the earliest recorded use of using urine and it’s contents is the second century BC. It’s usage had by this time been utilized for an unknown period of time before this recording.

They where isolating sex and pituitary hormones from human urine. These crystals called in English ‘autumn minerals’ where used to treat a number of medical/health issues
.
Human urine not only contains the minerals and elements mentioned in this article but also steroid hormones, androgens, estrogens, pituitary hormones known as gonadotrophins which stimulate the sex glands (gonads).

Between 1025 and 1833 there where at least 10 additional methods having been recorded detailing how to obtain these various sex and pituitary hormones.

Attention was paid to whom the urine was coming from. Males or females. These two urines would be mixed together based on certain formulas in various quantities. This was done for the purpse of either obtaining predomimantly androgen (male hormone ) or predomimantly estrogen (female hormone). Other methods produced gonadotrophins.

Traditionaly these where used to treat amongst other things a wide variety of ailments relating to the sex organs of the human body. Including using today’s terms, hypogonadism, impotence, hermaphroditism, spermatorrhea, dysmenorrhea, leucorrhea, sexual debility and stimulating hair growth with males.

In today’s modern medical system the modern field of endocrinology some fertility drugs are produced and given to women to facilitate the production of eggs. Substances which have been extracted from the urine of menopausal women.

Other health issues that are treated are ; menopause, diabetes, metabolic disorders, lack of/poor physical development/growth, osteoporosis, thyroid condition, cancers of the endocrine glands, over/under production of hormones, cholesterol disorders, hypertension, infertility.

“The derivation of sex hormones from human urine is today a standard practice, and modern medicine could not do without human urine as their source”.

Timeship's picture

Before you complain about high taxes, remember this huge problem of the old times and thank the government for the FREE restrooms throughout the Western world… because in some countries if you don’t pay you’re in huge trouble on the street ;-)

   

Bob Bello
writer/producer
Facebook.com/timeship

Register to become part of our active community, get updates, receive a monthly newsletter, and enjoy the benefits and rewards of our member point system OR just post your comment below as a Guest.

Top New Stories

‘An alchemist being tempted by Luxuria.’ Oil painting after Marten de Vos.
Spiritual alchemy is closely linked to secret knowledge and many who have attained this level of wisdom later decided to withdraw from it as they found they were not ready to receive it. The purpose of spiritual alchemy is attaining an ancient state which allows access to answers to the following questions: “Who are we?”

Our Mission

At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained.

The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe.

We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives.

By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. 

Ancient Image Galleries

View from the Castle Gate (Burgtor). (Public Domain)
Door surrounded by roots of Tetrameles nudiflora in the Khmer temple of Ta Phrom, Angkor temple complex, located today in Cambodia. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
Cable car in the Xihai (West Sea) Grand Canyon (CC BY-SA 4.0)
Next article