Stone at Newgrange and Celtic with X symbol

Research Decodes Ancient Celtic Astronomy Symbols and Links them to Jungian Archetypes

(Read the article on one page)

My nonprofit educational corporation, The Celtic Collection Program, exhibits the largest privately owned collection of Celtic artifacts in the United States. When we started purchasing the artifacts from private collections and ancient galleries several years ago, I observed a motif of X and interconnected X designs on some of them, including important ones likely used to perform ceremonies. As a historian and a therapist with preferences for Psychoanalytic Theory and Neo-Freudian traditions such as Analytical Psychology, a school of psychology that originated from the ideas of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, interpreting these symbols became a personal and professional challenge.

After fifteen years of identifying hundreds of linear and X patterns on artifacts and studying the symbolism of Stonehenge and Newgrange, I have discovered remarkable data, some of which has led me to consider that there may be a correlation between ancient X symbolism and what Dr. Carl Jung referred to as the “Collective Unconscious”, a subconscious storehouse of buried memories inherited from our ancestral past.

Importance of the Sun in Ancient Celtic Society

According to Dr. Miranda J. Green in her book, Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend , the sun was significantly meaningful to the ancient Celts. She states that “One of the most important venerated natural phenomena was the sun, seen as a life giver, promoter of fertility and healing” and that “coins were struck with sun symbols associated with the horse” (Refer to Celtic Collection Program Artifacts #1).

Some of the primary symbols for the Sun in ancient Celtic times were an X or a four-spoked wheel featured on bronze axes, swords, coins, urns, pottery and jewelry since Neolithic Europe.  “Hallstatt Iron Age sheet-bronze vessels were decorated with repousse crosses and solar wheels,” states Dr. Green.

The X symbol was no doubt a significant astronomical representation for thousands of years; perhaps one of the most powerful ideograms valued by the Celts, which explains the X motif on our artifacts. The X artifacts range from 62 AD to 400 BC. However, to uncover the mystery of the interconnected design, a close evaluation of the symbols at Stonehenge and Newgrange needed to be conducted.

Celtic Collection Program Artifacts

Photo 1 is a coin from the Iceni tribe, 62 AD. Photo 2 is a Central European arm bracelet (c.a. 400 BC), in which are two sets of interconnected X’s extending from top to bottom inside of both bars . Photo 3 is a bell (200 BC) from Central Europe (likely used for ceremonial purposes) containing interconnected X’s engraved through its metal and around its body.

All photos taken and owned by Lewis Hales of artifacts held in the Celtic Collection Program. Photo 1 is a coin from the Iceni tribe, 62 AD. Photo 2 is a Central European arm bracelet (c.a. 400 BC), in which are two sets of interconnected X’s extending from top to bottom inside of both bars . Photo 3 is a bell (200 BC) from Central Europe (likely used for ceremonial purposes) containing interconnected X’s engraved through its metal and around its body.

This photo is a Central European bracelet (300 BC) with an atypical shape, which features a plain design on one side and a more elaborate version (twisted bronze) on the other one. Two long abstract shapes of a triangle are engraved into each terminal, a deeper cut one the plain side and a less elaborate cut one on the twisted side, forming an encoded cross reference of an X.

Photo taken and owned by Lewis Hales of artifact held in the Celtic Collection Program. This photo is a Central European bracelet (300 BC) with an atypical shape, which features a plain design on one side and a more elaborate version (twisted bronze) on the other one. Two long abstract shapes of a triangle are engraved into each terminal, a deeper cut one the plain side and a less elaborate cut one on the twisted side, forming an encoded cross reference of an X. This is the identical encoded design upon which Stonehenge was built (Refer to the Stonehenge geographical graphics design).

The Stonehenge and Newgrange X Factor

Stonehenge, prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England.

Stonehenge, prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England. (Flickr/ CC BY 2.0 )

According to David Souden in his book, Stonehenge Revealed, “The stone phase at Stonehenge extended from 2550 BC to 1600 BC”, and is located in Wiltshire, England. Stonehenge is approximately 2,000 years older than our artifacts and its construction layout and artifacts excavated at or nearby the monument have revealed pertinent information. Stonehenge was built with an encoded X symbol between its Station Stones; the North Barrow Station Stone was intended to cross reference the South Barrow Stone and the North Station Stone was meant to align with the South Station Stone, forming a symbolic X across the monument’s landscape. The X precisely connects at the location of the altar, forming a perfect alignment straight across the ceremonial Avenue (Refer to Stonehenge’s X graphic design).

Hundreds of artifacts featuring interconnected X artwork and the six images formed by that design (Refer to Findings and Summary) have been recovered from Stonehenge, such as the Chalk tablets (3,000-2,500 BC), an Early Bronze Age gold plaque from Wiltshire, and the Late Bronze Age gold lozenge, about which, Ancient Origins writer April Holloway accurately cited as an artifact believed by some to be an “astronomical instrument”, in her article, The Mysterious Golden Lozenge of Stonehenge .                                      

Comments

The X also looks like the Wheel of Life the Swastika

The X is also used in early medeval times as sign/symbol for Christ or God.

the practice of using the symbol “X” in place of Christ’s name has been going on amongst religious scholars for at least 1000 years. http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2011/12/the-x-in-xmas-doesnt-tak... http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/swords-inscription-800-year-old...

Tsurugi's picture

@Noelarch:

You said, "Celtic artefacts can only be dated with precision from the mid 4th century BC[…]"

I'm not sure I understand. Would you mind clarifying/expounding upon the above statement?

Hi Lewis and thank you for your clarifications. Please note that I (nor I'm sure Gill) are calling your qualifications or experience into question. However, you are expounding theories. Not facts. Even within your clarification you use the term "Celtic artifacts" (sic) without blushing. Celtic artefacts can only be dated with precision from the mid 4th century BC as you must know. Any denoting of artefacts of any kind from prior to that date is pure speculation and underpins modern holistic use of the term "Celtic" for any wishy washy, swirly twirly ancient artform, driving an unattached quasi hippy/Druidic cultural that is by turns risible and incredibly annoying. In fact DNA analysis finds little in common between the peoples of Austria/Switzerland and those of, for example, Ireland. Ireland is often used as an example of a "Celtic" country. However the Celtic nature of Ireland from 150 BC onwards in purely cultural (art and language) and denotes no actual large scale presence of "Celts". To say otherwise is akin to saying that the French speaking aristocracy of Russian in the late 18th and early 19th Centuries wee French. they were anything but! They spoke French and aped French manners, style, food and dress because they admired French culture.

Indeed, the search for depth of meaning in the 3 contiguous swirls on the front kerbstone guarding the entrance to Newgrange has been interpreted quite simply by many local Irish archaeologists as representing the intertwined nature of the three main Megalithic passage tombs of Bru na Boinne - the Bend of the Boyne.

Once your theory has been fleshed out, hypothesised and is supported by facts I'll gladly eat my words. Until then however, the theories that you propound should come with a strong health warning. By the way, I've an MA and B.Sc. myself and am one of those local archaeologists.

luvartifacts1's picture

In addition to the above clarification post, I have also been conducting lectures on ancient Celtic history, with a focus on the Urnfield, Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, and the interpretation of ancient Celtic artifacts at several colleges, Universities and at other educational facilities for 15 years. Thank you all.
Lewis Hales, M.A., M.A.

Lewis Hales

           

Pages

Register to become part of our active community, get updates, receive a monthly newsletter, and enjoy the benefits and rewards of our member point system OR just post your comment below as a Guest.

Our Mission

At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained.

The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe.

We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives.

By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. 

Ancient Image Galleries

View from the Castle Gate (Burgtor). (Public Domain)
Door surrounded by roots of Tetrameles nudiflora in the Khmer temple of Ta Phrom, Angkor temple complex, located today in Cambodia. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
Cable car in the Xihai (West Sea) Grand Canyon (CC BY-SA 4.0)
Next article