An ancient Roman road at Leptis Magna, Libya

Ancient Journeys: What was Travel Like for the Romans?

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It was not uncommon for the ancient Romans to travel long distances all across Europe. Actually during the Roman Empire, Rome had an incredible road network which extended from northern England all the way to southern Egypt. At its peak, the Empire's stone paved road network reached 53,000 miles (85,000 kilometers)! Roman roads were very reliable, they were the most relied on roads in Europe for many centuries after the collapse of the Roman Empire. It could be argued that they were more reliable than our roads today considering how long they could last and how little maintenance they required.

A Roman street in Pompeii.

A Roman street in Pompeii. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Travel by road

Unlike today, travel by road was quite slow and... exhausting! For example, going from Rome to Naples would take over six days in Roman times according to ORBIS, the Google Maps for the ancient world developed by Stanford University. By comparison, it takes about two hours and 20 minutes to drive from Rome to Naples today.

Funeral relief (2nd century ) depicting an Ancient Roman carriage.

Funeral relief (2nd century ) depicting an Ancient Roman carriage. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Romans would travel in a raeda, a carriage with four noisy iron-shod wheels, many wooden benches inside for the passengers, a clothed top (or no top at all) and drawn by up to four horses or mules. The raeda was the equivalent of the bus today and Roman law limited the amount of luggage it could carry to 1,000 libra (or approximately 300 kilograms).

Rich Romans traveled in the carpentum which was the limousine of wealthy Romans. The carpentum was pulled by many horses, it had four wheels, a wooden arched rooftop, comfortable cushy seats, and even some form a suspension to make the ride more comfortable. Romans also had what would be the equivalent of our trucks today: the plaustrum. The plaustrum could carry heavy loads, it had a wooden board with four thick wheels and was drawn by two oxen. It was very slow and could travel only about 10-15 miles (approximately 15 to 25 kilometers) per day.

Carpentum replica at the Cologne Museum.

Carpentum replica at the Cologne Museum . ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

The fastest way to travel from Rome to Naples was by horse relay or the cursus publicus , which was like a state-run postal service and a service used to transport officials (such as magistrates or people from the military). A certificate issued by the emperor was required in order for the service to be used. A series of stations with fresh and rapid horses were built at short regular intervals (approximately eight miles or 12 kilometers) along the major road systems. Estimates of how fast one could travel using the cursus publicus vary. A study by A.M. Ramsey in "The speed of the Roman Imperial Post" (Journal of Roman Studies) estimates that a typical trip was made at a rate of 41 to 64 miles per day (66 - 103 kilometers per day).  Therefore, the trip from Rome to Naples would take approximately two days using this service.

Because of their iron-shod wheels, Roman carriages made of a lot of noise. That's why they were forbidden from big Roman cities and their vicinity during the day. They were also quite uncomfortable due to their lack of suspension, making the ride from Rome to Naples quite bumpy. Fortunately, Roman roads had way stations called mansiones (meaning "staying places" in Latin) where ancient Romans could rest. Mansiones were the equivalent of our highway rest areas today. They sometimes had restaurants and pensions where Romans could drink, eat and sleep. They were built by the government at regular intervals usually 15 to 20 miles apart (around 25 to 30 kilometers). These mansiones were often badly frequented, with prostitutes and thieves roaming around. Major Roman roads also had tolls just like our modern highways. These tolls were often situated at bridges (just like today) or at city gates.

Travel by sea and river

Man sailing a corbita, a small coastal vessel with two masts.

Man sailing a corbita, a small coastal vessel with two masts. ( Public Domain )

There were no passenger ships or cruise ships in ancient Rome. But there were tourists. It was actually not uncommon for well-to-do Romans to travel just for the sake of traveling and visiting new places and friends. Romans had to board a merchant ship. They first had to find a ship, then get the captain's approval and negotiate a price with him. There were a large number of merchant ships traveling regular routes in the Mediterranean. Finding a ship traveling to a specific destination, for example in Greece or Egypt, at a specific time and date wasn't that difficult.

Comments

So the two day rush shipment from Rome to Naples was roughly the same as UPS today!

Fascinating reading about day to day things like this. Would have to be able to have a camera that can look back in time and show what these roads were like. Wonder how busy they got?

10 to 15 miles per day is amazingly fast for people who also have to do other things to make their travel possible, even when the roads are good. For instance, obtaining and cooking supplies could easily take up more than half the daylight hours (at any rate in winter in the north), and that's even before washing and cleaning and making and breaking camp, let alone vehicle maintenance and animal care. Mediaeval armies on the march were often stopping at the van before the rear had even left, which is why a league - the practical distance between camps - was often between three and five miles, depending on the terrain.

10 to 15 miles per day! That’s quite slow. When people went West -Oregon trail, or any of the other trails during the late 1800’s in the US- they went by wagon, horse or walking and they did 20 miles per day. And the poney express, a similar horse relay system as described in the artical, could go from Atlantic to Pacific(about 3000 miles) in 10 days. To travel 41 to 60 miles from Rome to Naples in two days is also pretty slow. Did the Roman road have bad traffic? No passing lanes? Did the Univeristy that created the map believe that the people today are so much better, that the people of that past could not have possiably done things in a realistic time frame?

 

--Still learning--

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