Bask in the Beauty and Melody of the Ancient Mesopotamian Lyres of Ur

Bask in the Beauty and Melody of the Ancient Mesopotamian Lyres of Ur

(Read the article on one page)

It is unknown which culture was the first to create music, but a set of beautiful Sumerian instruments from the city of Ur provide us with some insight into the world of ancient music. They are known as the Lyres of Ur and these musical instruments have been reconstructed for modern audiences to marvel at their melodious sounds as well as eye-catching appearances.

The famous Lyres of Ur, which are somewhat similar to modern harps, are the oldest stringed instruments unearthed to date. They were found in 1929 by a team of archaeologists led by Leonard Woolley. Although he is known as the discoverer of numerous fantastic treasures from this ancient city and the Royal Cemetery of Ur, the lyres revolutionized our knowledge about ancient music. Patient excavations allowed Woolley to explore the history of these musical instruments and also to reconstruct them so they can be plucked and strummed once again.

The Queen's lyre from the Royal Cemetery at Ur, southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. The British Museum, London.

The Queen's lyre from the Royal Cemetery at Ur, southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. The British Museum, London. ( CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 )

Uncovering the Magnificent Instruments

When Woolley started to dig at the ancient site of Ur he had no idea how many priceless treasures it held. The riddle of the royal tombs, where dozens of servants had been buried with their rulers, is one of the creepiest ancient stories about funerary culture.

Leonard Woolley holding the hardened plaster mold of the Sumerian Queen's Lyre, 1922.

Leonard Woolley holding the hardened plaster mold of the Sumerian Queen's Lyre, 1922. ( Public Domain )

Lyres are instruments with strings that used to be strummed with a pick, or by hand, to make a peaceful sound. You would need to be calm and gentle with this instrument to make it play heavenly music. It was very popular in the court of Sumerian kings and many of them wanted to take this pleasant-sounding music to the afterlife. Therefore, many lyres were discovered in the Royal Cemetery of Ur. They are dated back to the Early Dynastic III Period (2550 – 2450 BC). Researchers suppose that they had 11 strings.

The Great Golden Lyre

It was very difficult to conserve the lyres. For the Great Lyre, the problem was focused on the bull's head. It was made with many separate details that had decomposed over time. This lyre is 33 cm (13 in) tall and 11 cm (4.5 in) wide. Its shape looks much like the body of a bull. When the Great Lyre was discovered, it was completely disintegrated - only the soil impression allowed Woolley to decipher its animalistic appearance. His team recorded the size and shape of the lyre and recovered all of the details of the instrument that they could.

Bull's head from the Queen's lyre grave.

Bull's head from the Queen's lyre grave. ( CC BY-SA 4.0 )

The Great Lyre was unearthed with the remains of 68 women. It is believed that they were the king’s servants, but it is impossible to find out how many of them were musicians. Some of them could have been singers or dancers too.

It is believed that one of the women was holding the elaborate lyre in her hands when she died. The bones of her hand were placed where the strings would have been located. All of the unfortunate women were probably poisoned. The giant burial ceremony took place about 4,750 years ago. Their forgotten remains were under the soil of Ur for almost 3000 years, about when Cleopatra VII died in Alexandria.

The Queen’s Lyre

Another of the fascinating lyres is the one unearthed in the extravagant grave of Queen Pu-abi, whose treasures are one of the most famous collections related to the city of Ur. This beautifully decorated lyre is known as The Queen's Lyre.

The Queen's Lyre from Woolley's published record of the discovery.

The Queen's Lyre from Woolley's published record of the discovery. ( No Known Copyright /The Commons)

Nowadays, it is a part of the British Museum’s collection. This lyre can be overwhelming due to its grace and beauty. It is 110 cm (44 in) tall and very similar to the previously described Great Lyre. However, the sophisticated appearance of this lyre makes it unique. The decoration of the bull is all gold, and its hair, beard, and eyes were made of very expensive lapis lazuli (imported from the territory of modern Afghanistan). The horns of the animal were recreated, but other parts are mostly original. The general shape of the lyre is also similar to a bull’s strong body. It seemed to be almost holding the person who played it.

Register to become part of our active community, get updates, receive a monthly newsletter, and enjoy the benefits and rewards of our member point system OR just post your comment below as a Guest.

Top New Stories

The sarcophagus of Junius Bassus.
Bacchus into Jesus. This is a topic seen many times before and its relevance continues here. As mentioned in a previous article, the attributes of the Greco-Roman god of wine, transformation and ecstasy—called Dionysus or Bacchus—were borrowed from in the early days of Christian worship in and around the city of Rome.

Myths & Legends

A vase-scene from about 410 BC. Nimrod/Herakles, wearing his fearsome lion skin headdress, spins Noah/Nereus around and looks him straight in the eye. Noah gets the message and grimaces, grasping his scepter, a symbol of his rule - soon to be displaced in the post-Flood world by Nimrod/Herakles, whose visage reveals a stern smirk.
The Book of Genesis describes human history. Ancient Greek religious art depicts human history. While their viewpoints are opposite, the recounted events and characters match each other in convincing detail. This brief article focuses on how Greek religious art portrayed Noah, and how it portrayed Nimrod in his successful rebellion against Noah’s authority.

Ancient Technology

Our Mission

At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained.

The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe.

We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives.

By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. 

Ancient Image Galleries

View from the Castle Gate (Burgtor). (Public Domain)
Door surrounded by roots of Tetrameles nudiflora in the Khmer temple of Ta Phrom, Angkor temple complex, located today in Cambodia. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
Cable car in the Xihai (West Sea) Grand Canyon (CC BY-SA 4.0)
Next article