Roman dodecahedra

The enigma of the Roman dodecahedra

The Roman dodecahedron is a small, hollow object made of bronze or (more rarely) stone, with a geometrical shape that has twelve flat faces. Each face is a pentagon, a five-sided shape. The Roman dodecahedra are also embellished with a series of knobs on each corner point of the pentagons, and the pentagon faces in most cases contain circular holes in them.  More than 200 years after they were first discovered, researchers are no closer to understanding the origin and function of this mysterious object.

The Roman dodecahedra date from the 2nd or 3rd centuries AD, and typicall range from 4cm to 11cm in size. To date, more than one hundred of these artifacts have been found across Great Britain, Belgium, Germany, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Austria, Switzerland, and Hungary.

An incomplete cast copper alloy dodecahedron

An incomplete cast copper alloy dodecahedron (1 – 400 AD), discovered by a metal detectorist in Yorkshire,  England ( Portable Antiquities Scheme / creative commons).

The great mystery is: how do they work and what do they do? Unfortunately, there is no documentation or notes about them from the time of their creation, so the function of these dodecahedra has not been determined. Nevertheless, many theories and speculations have been put forward over the centuries: candlestick holders (wax was found inside one example), dice, survey instruments, devices for determining the optimal sowing date for winter grain, gauges to calibrate water pipes or standard army bases, staff or scepter decorations, a toy to throw and catch on a stick, or simply a geometric sculpture. Among these speculations, some deserve attention.

One of the most accepted theories is that the Roman dodecahedron was used as a measuring device, more precisely as a range measuring object on the battlefield. The hypothesis is that the dodecahedron was used for calculating the trajectories of projectiles. This could explain the different sized holes in the pentagrams. A similar theory involves dodecahedra as a surveying and levelling device. However, neither of these theories has been supported by any proof and exactly how the dodecahedron could be used for these purposes has not been fully explained.

One of the more interesting theories is the proposal that dodecahedra were astronomic measuring instruments for determining the optimal sowing date for winter grain. According to G.M.C. Wagemans , "the dodecahedron was an astronomic measuring instrument with which the angle of the sunlight can be measured and thereby one specific date in springtime, and one date in the autumn can be determined with accuracy. The dates that can be measured were probably of importance for the agriculture". Nevertheless, opponents of this theory have pointed out that use as a measuring instrument of any kind seems to be prohibited by the fact that the dodacahedra were not standardized and come in many sizes and arrangements.

A Roman dodecahedron found in Bonn, Germany

A Roman dodecahedron found in Bonn, Germany. Credit: Hadley Paul Garland / flickr

Another unproven theory claims that the dodecahedra are religious relics, once used as sacred tools for the druids of Britannia and Caledonia. However, there is no written account or archaeological evidence to support this view. Could it be that this strange item was simply a toy or a recreational game for legionnaires, during the war campaigns? Some sources suggest they were the central objects in a bowl game similar to that of our days, with these artifacts used as markers and the players throwing stones to land them in the holes within the dodecahedra.

Statue 'Dodecaëder' in Tongeren

Statue 'Dodecaëder' in Tongeren, highlighting the mystery of the Roman dodecahedra ( Wikimedia)

Another discovery deepens the mystery about the function of these objects. Some time ago, Benno Artmann discovered a Roman icosahedron (a polyhedron with twenty faces), misclassified as a dodecahedron on just a superficial glance, and put away in a museum's basement storage. The discovery raises the question about whether there are many other geometric artifacts of different types – such as, icosahedra, hexagons, octagons – yet to be found in what was once the great Roman Empire.

The Roman icosahedron found by Benno Artmann

The Roman icosahedron found by Benno Artmann (

Despite the many unanswered questions, one thing is certain, the Roman dodecahedra were highly valued by their owners.  This is evidenced by the fact that a number of them were found among treasure hoards, among coins and other valuable items.  We may never know the true purpose of the Roman dodecahedra, but we can only hope that advances in archaeology will unearth more clues that will help solve this ancient enigma.

Featured Image: A Roman dodecahedron. Source: BigStockPhoto


Roman dodecahedron – Wikipedia. Available from:

The Roman dodecahedron – Legends and Chronicles. Available from:

Roman dodecahedra – George Hard. Available from:

Has The Roman Dodecahedron Mystery Been Solved? – Red Ice Creations. Available from:

Has The Roman Dodecahedron Mystery Been Solved? – Gralien Report. Available from:

The Roman Pentagon Dodecahedron: An Astronomic Measuring Instrument for Determining the Optimal Sowing Date for Winter Grain – By G.M.C. Wagemans. Available from:

By Federico Cataldo


I think the smaller ones where for gauging pearls. The holes are about the right size.

these are found all over ancient rome, so many different size holes, pearls dont come in that many sizes, especially large ones.

The Romans were very sexual - I think the men would use this on the end of the penis, different sizes for different sizes. The holes still allowed some touching by fingers, etc. and the partner got extra stimulation at penetration. The wax may of helped with the sizing and stabilization.

My first thought was that they could be some kind of pomander.. fill them with scented wax (One was found with a tiny bit of wax inside it) and use them as a way to smell nice.. Romans loved being clean an all that, big on hygene they were. so I've been googling stuff, trying to work out if its a theory that could stick, no-one else mentions it in their theories so i was kinda getting excited. Then as I was googling I hit upon Pythagoras (the confusing maths guy) he used numbers and shapes to represent gods... or used gods to represent numbers (possibly picked up and theorised during his time studying in Egypt).. Plutarch tried to make sense of Pythagoras coded theories and mentioned that the god assigned to the shape of the dodecahedron was Jupiter. Plato also jumps in with his theories of the 5 platonic solids.. geometric shapes that he used to represent the 4 elements,, and the 5th, the dodecahedron which he remarks "The god used for arranging the constellations and the whole heaven".. so at this point the dodecahedron is God.. the universe.. Jupiter. Now all this is taking place round about the same time, and the dodecahedrons that have been found have been dated around about the 2nd or 3rd century AD, which is right around the time that the old gods of Rome (Jupiter being the daddy, the most powerful god in the heavens) were being wiped out by the new religion, Christianity. Maybe, just maybe, the dodecahedrons found (some in with coin hoards, which ment they were valuable) were a sign of worshipping the old gods.. a link to Jupiter, a little bit of the god in your home, your hand, your pocket.. like our modern day cross on a chain, or a crucifix up in your home... also, by the end of the 1st century Rome had trading links with Southeast Asia and dodecahedrons have also been found there. So that's my theory, Pythagoras and Plato use this shape to represent the biggest god in the Roman world.. so the Romans carry a little god with them and they couldnt carry a statue of Jupiter as they would have done before as the old gods had been outlawed pretty much.. all roman emperors had to sign over to christianity.. it was a kind of coded way of saying they believed in the old gods

That sounds like a good take on it, and it makes as much, if not more, sense than the theories proposed so far.


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