The iconic features of Mont Saint-Michel in the evening light.

Medieval Mont St-Michel: The Sacred Castle in the Sea

(Read the article on one page)

Considered one of the wonders of the Western World, Mont St-Michel is a medieval fortress in France, sitting on top a rocky island in the ocean.  Floating like a mirage on the horizon, this sacred monastery is truly a one-of-a-kind site.

People have been living here for well over a thousand years and throughout its existence, the island has served as a strategic fortress, prison, and place of pilgrimage, attracting Christian pilgrims from all across the world.  The centerpiece of Mont St-Michel is its church which is essentially a medieval skyscraper which was inspired by a dream.

Perched on top of a 264 foot (80 meters) rock formation, Mont St-Michel is located on the north coast of France, where the regions of Normandy and Brittany meet.  What makes this monument so striking is its location.  Like something out of a fairy tale, Mont St-Michel is a granite island in the center of a huge bay, connected by a causeway to the mainland (a path uncovered only at low tide). 

A view of Mont St-Michel at low tide.

A view of Mont St-Michel at low tide. ( Public Domain )

During the highest of tides, it is completely surrounded by water.  The water here can rush in at incredible speeds and rise up to 45 feet (13.72 meters) during high tide and an unsuspecting pedestrian could easily drown by the sudden shift. 

In prehistoric times, the bay where the monastery now sits was part of the coastline.  Over millions of years, rising sea levels led to erosion which tore down and shaped the coastal landscape.  Some blocks of granite resisted the wear and tear of the ocean better than its surroundings, which is why Mont St-Michel (together with a few other rocks) remains standing tall in an otherwise ever-changing landscape. 

The origins of Mont St. Michel date back to the sixth and seventh century A.D. when Armorican Gauls used the island as a stronghold of Breton culture and power.  During this time, the island was known as “Monte Tombe”.  When the Romans left Britannia (today’s United Kingdom) in the mid fifth century, many Britons crossed the channel due to fear of the increasing Anglo-Saxon influence in their former home country. This emigration is the reason why the French region is called Bretagne or in English “Brittany”.  The Monte Tombe served as a stronghold until it was later sacked by the Franks, which ended the era of Celtic cultural links between Britannia and Bretagne.

In October 708, the bishop of Avranches, St. Aubert, ordered a small church to be built on the site.  The arrival of the cult of St. Michael is recounted in a 10th century manuscript called “ La Revelatio ecclesiae sancti Michaelis ”. 

According to the legend, one night in 708, St. Aubert saw the Archangel Michael (leader of the armies of heaven) in a dream, who commanded him to build a church on top of the island.  There is a golden statue of Saint Michel which can be seen at the top of the church spire. Building the monastery was an immense project that evolved over many centuries.  The construction of the abbey took more than 500 years, from 1017 to 1521 AD, and the original church structure was completed in 1144 AD.  Other buildings were added in the 13th century to accommodate monks and pilgrims who came to Mont St-Michel to pray and find solitude.

In the beginning, Mont St-Michel resembled a typical 11th century Romanesque church but, like many other churches during this period, was affected by the wave of gothic architecture that spread throughout Europe.  Today, the church is seen as gothic in style with gothic pointed arches and windows that fill the sanctuary with light. 

The atmospheric interior of Mont St-Michel.

The atmospheric interior of Mont St-Michel. (HenryMarion/ CC BY-SA 2.0 )

Throughout the Middle Ages, a village grew up around the church, mostly on the eastern side of the island, and today around 30 to 50 residents make their home here.  Its main street is lined with shops and hotels, and during the the Middle Ages, this was a retail gauntlet with stalls selling souvenirs and fast food such as omelets and crepes.


A 'retail gauntlet' ? What the heck is that ?

This is the narrow first road which leads from the sea to the villages. Narrow, confining, but to this day small stores selling souveniers, fast food, 1 hotel. To this day we all run/walk this money-making Gauntlet hike to the church. The villagers do as they have for over 1000 years in selling false idols to the Pilgrims, (us, the tourists).
My knowledge of this is from staying on the Mount 4 times, each a stay of 5 nights. I highly regard this as a wonder of the world and France maintains the secrets hidden in the 75% still unseen by Tourists or Scholars like myself. Go, stay for a night and go out at night, the real Medieval wonder comes alive only at night. See Jumieges on your way out.

RE: "Perched on top of a 264 foot (80 feet) rock formation:

Could you mean 80 meters?

Gary Manners's picture

Thank you for advising of the error Cornell. Amended accordingly.



More than two thousand years ago, the Mont Saint-Michel was called Mont Tombe (Mount Tomb), but it had never been a place of grief. Many centuries B.C., it was one of the most spiritual places for Druids. Here they talked to their gods, with Belenus prime among them. Belenus, “the shining one,” means the sun and everything connected to it: fire, warmth, fertility, spring, and life. His symbols are the circle and the swastika (yes, the same old sign that has been besmirched by Hitler). His main holiday, Beltane, was celebrated on the 1st of May, after which winter with its cold should be gone, giving way to warmth and faring well.

Thousands of pilgrims came to Mont Tombe from all of Gaul (modern France) to join the celebration. Celtic votaries, Druids made up fire on the top of the mountain using the sun’s rays to signify the end of the winter battle and the arrival of warmth. The fire could be seen many kilometres away.

It was a bright feast and people associated the future Le Mont Saint Michel with gladness, hope, and happiness. Everything was very different from the forthcoming Christian times, when people started to connect it with the world of the dead, and, more precisely, with the transition to the world of the dead, the door to which was thought to open at night.

That’s why entrance to the church is strictly forbidden at night, even to the monks themselves, although according to another version, angels gather here at night, probably in order to discuss their achievements and plans.

Each year on the 1st of November, you may count on meeting your deceased forefathers here. The locals still preserve the tradition of making a small voyage towards the Mont Saint Michel before they bring a deceased person to the burial place.


Register to become part of our active community, get updates, receive a monthly newsletter, and enjoy the benefits and rewards of our member point system OR just post your comment below as a Guest.

Top New Stories

The Langeid Viking Battle Axe: The original and the copy.
Contrary to what many believe, battle axes from the last part of the Viking age, i.e. the 11th century, had evolved to become light, streamlined, and well-balanced. At the same time, they were powerful lethal weapons, something the recently reconstructed broad axe from Langeid in Southern Norway confirms.

Myths & Legends

Our Mission

At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained.

The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe.

We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives.

By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. 

Ancient Image Galleries

View from the Castle Gate (Burgtor). (Public Domain)
Door surrounded by roots of Tetrameles nudiflora in the Khmer temple of Ta Phrom, Angkor temple complex, located today in Cambodia. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
Cable car in the Xihai (West Sea) Grand Canyon (CC BY-SA 4.0)
Next article