Theseus and the Minotaur in the Labyrinth (1861) by Edward Burne-Jones

The Legendary Cretan Labyrinth Cave: Inspiration for the Story of King Minos and the Labyrinth of the Minotaur?

(Read the article on one page)

In Greek mythology, the Labyrinth was a structure built by the famed craftsman Daedalus in order to hold a creature known as the Minotaur. The Minotaur was said to be a creature that was half-man and half-bull. This creature was believed to be the son of Queen Pasiphae of Crete and a bull.

As the beast became more and more ferocious, it developed a taste for human flesh. Thus, the king of Crete, Minos, wanted to have it contained, and upon receiving advice from the Oracle at Delphi, had the Labyrinth built near his palace in Knossos. Although the story of the Minotaur is taken by many today as just a myth, there is a real Labyrinth Cave on the island of Crete. Perhaps this cave was the inspiration for the story of Minos’ Labyrinth and the fearsome creature that resided within it?

Inside the Labyrinth Cave near Gortyn, Crete

Inside the Labyrinth Cave near Gortyn, Crete ( University of Oxford )

Location of the Labyrinth Cave

The Labyrinth Cave is an ancient quarry-cave located near the town of Gortyn, in the southern part of Crete. In the past, there were three different places speculated to be the ‘true’ Labyrinth. For many of the island’s locals, it was the Labyrinth Cave near Gortyn that was the Labyrinth of the Minotaur myth.

The Gortyn archaeological site, Crete.  The Labyrinth cave is located near this site.

The Gortyn archaeological site, Crete.  The Labyrinth cave is located near this site. ( CC BY SA 3.0 )

On the other hand, the English archaeologist, Arthur Evans (most famous for his excavation of Knossos), believed that the Labyrinth of the Minotaur was located at Knossos. This opinion was perhaps based on the ancient literary sources, such as the work of the 2nd century AD Greek traveler Pausanias, Description of Greece , in which it is written that:

“Minos sailed against Athens with a fleet, not believing that the Athenians were innocent of the death of Androgeos, and sorely harassed them until it was agreed that he should take seven maidens and seven boys for the Minotaur that was said to dwell in the Labyrinth at Cnossus (Knossos).”

Silver coin with labyrinth design from Knossos, Crete

Silver coin with labyrinth design from Knossos, Crete ( CC BY SA 3.0 )

Evans’ speculation eventually became widely accepted. However, a French archaeologist named Paul Faure proposed a third possible location for the legendary Labyrinth, a cave called Agia Paraskevi, near Skotino, which is located to the east of the Cretan administrative capital, Heraklion.

Entrance to the Agia Paraskevi cave, Skotino, Crete

Entrance to the Agia Paraskevi cave, Skotino, Crete ( CC BY SA 3.0 )

The Labyrinth Caves and Mythology

Although such locations have all been supposedly the ‘true’ Labyrinth, it has been pointed out that the Minotaur and the Labyrinth both belong in the realm of mythology, and no one can be entirely certain if they even existed in the first place. Nevertheless, it is entirely possible that locations which are ‘Labyrinth-like’ exist on Crete, and gave birth to the story of the Minotaur in the imagination of the Greeks.

Engraving of the Minotaur in a labyrinth.

Engraving of the Minotaur in a labyrinth. ( Public Domain )

A Labyrinth-like Cave and a Quarry

Returning to the Labyrinth Cave, it has been pointed out that this cave is not a maze but rather, a complex system of corridors which may give a ‘labyrinthine’ impression to those visiting the cave for the first time. Indeed, within the Labyrinth Cave there are tunnels longer than 2.5 km (1.6 miles) and several rooms that led nowhere.

Map of the Labyrinth Cave near Gortyn, Crete

Map of the Labyrinth Cave near Gortyn, Crete ( Anna Petrohilou )

These chambers actually served as quarries for the extraction of stone that was then used in the construction of buildings in nearby towns and cities. Constructions believed to have come from this quarry include: Phaestus, a Minoan palace, and the town of Gortyn when the island was under Roman rule. For those seeking the ‘true’ Labyrinth, it would not be difficult to regard the work of these quarry workers as the handiwork of Daedalus and his workmen.

A Dangerous Place Even Without the Minotaur

The Labyrinth Cave eventually ceased to operate, was abandoned, and was soon inhabited by bats. Over the subsequent centuries, locals visited the cave frequently to collect the bats’ droppings, which were then used as a fertilizer.

Additionally, visitors and travelers visited and perhaps explored the cave as well. This is attested by the graffiti left by them in many of the chambers, some of which have been dated to the 15th century AD.

Register to become part of our active community, get updates, receive a monthly newsletter, and enjoy the benefits and rewards of our member point system OR just post your comment below as a Guest.

Human Origins

Photo of Zecharia Sitchin (left)(CC0)Akkadian cylinder seal dating to circa 2300 BC depicting the deities Inanna, Utu, and Enki, three members of the Anunnaki.(right)
In a previous 2-part article (1), the authors wrote about the faulty associations of the Sumerian deities known as the Anunnaki as they are portrayed in the books, television series, and other media, which promotes Ancient Astronaut Theory (hereafter “A.A.T.”).

Ancient Technology

Roman glass (not the legendary flexible glass). Landesmuseum Württemberg, Stuttgart.
Imagine a glass you can bend and then watch it return to its original form. A glass that you drop but it doesn’t break. Stories say that an ancient Roman glassmaker had the technology to create a flexible glass, ‘vitrium flexile’, but a certain emperor decided the invention should not be.

Ancient Places

Face of the coffin where the mummy of Ramesses II was found. (Credit: Petra Lether, designed by Anand Balaji)
Usermaatre Setepenre Ramesses II, the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty, was one of ancient Egypt’s longest-reigning monarchs. In an astonishing sixty-seven regnal years – the glory days of empire that witnessed unprecedented peace and prosperity – the monarch built grand edifices and etched his name on innumerable monuments of his forbears.


Hopewell mounds from the Mound City Group in Ohio. Representative image
During the Early Woodland Period (1000—200 BC), the Adena people constructed extensive burial mounds and earthworks throughout the Ohio Valley in Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and West Virginia. Many of the skeletal remains found in these mounds by early antiquarians and 20th-Century archaeologists were of powerfully-built individuals reaching between 6.5 and eight feet in height (198 cm – 244 cm).

Our Mission

At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained.

The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe.

We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives.

By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. 

Ancient Image Galleries

View from the Castle Gate (Burgtor). (Public Domain)
Door surrounded by roots of Tetrameles nudiflora in the Khmer temple of Ta Phrom, Angkor temple complex, located today in Cambodia. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
Cable car in the Xihai (West Sea) Grand Canyon (CC BY-SA 4.0)
Next article