Engravings, Passageways, and Intriguing Stone Monuments: The Astronomical Temples of Loughcrew

Engravings, Passageways, and Intriguing Stone Monuments: The Astronomical Temples of Loughcrew

(Read the article on one page)

It is probably not possible to tell when humans first began to wonder about the stars, the sun, and the moon or try to understand their motion, though there is evidence of a lunar calendar being used by hunter-gatherers during the upper Paleolithic in Europe around 32,000 BC. One of the oldest sites identified as a likely astronomical observatory/temple is at Göbekli Tepe in southern Turkey. The 11,000-year-old Neolithic complex at the site is believed to have been a temple to the star Sirius. Other more well-known, but significantly younger, ancient astronomically significant sites are the Loughcrew cairns in Ireland.

Most archaeologists believe that the structures were tombs built by a Neolithic culture that pre-dates the arrival of the Celts. The cairns of Loughcrew were built to be aligned with the motion of the sun throughout the year. This is similar to other structures in Ireland such as the tombs of Newgrange which also have well-known astronomical alignments. In this article, I shall examine how the Loughcrew cairns are astronomically aligned and their likely purpose and cultural significance.

We will be looking at two cairns specifically for the sake of brevity. The Loughcrew cairns are divided into two groups, Carnbane West which consists of 15 cairns including Cairn L. In Cairn L, there is a mysterious standing stone which is referred to as the whispering stone. It is believed by some archaeologists that the stone was originally free standing and that the cairn was built around it. The passageway that connects the chamber to the surface is aligned in the direction of a group of hills. The passageway is aligned so that in early November and early February the sun shines into the chamber and illuminates the top of the whispering stone at sunrise. As the sun rises, the beam of light illuminating the chamber moves to the right to illuminate a basin containing a chamber stone decorated with engravings. This takes place on the cross-quarter days, the days that are half-way between an equinox and a solstice. It specifically takes place on the days that are half-way between the autumnal equinox and the winter solstice and half-way between the winter solstice and the spring equinox. These days were celebrated by the ancient Celts with the festivals of Samhain which is celebrated on October 31st-November 1st and Imbolc which is celebrated on February 1st.

There is also a possibility of lunar alignments. Martin Brennan and Jack Roberts, two amateur investigators of the loughcrew Cairns, noted that on August 26, 1980, a moon beam illuminated a cub mark in the chamber and the beam passed along the bottom of the whispering stone.

The other group of cairns is known as Carnbane East and contains Carin T. Cairn T, is surrounded by 38 kerbstones. There is one large kerbstone located on the north side of the cairn with armrests or “horns” which is called the Hag’s Chair. This name comes from the tradition that it is where, according to one tradition, a mythical hag sat to watch the stars. The kerbstone itself appears to be aligned with the pole star which at the time would have been the star Thuban rather than Polaris. More technically, it is aligned with the celestial north pole and thus whatever star would have been closest to it at the time. Surrounding Cairn T are smaller cairns, which are all in worse condition than Cairn T, though some of them are known to have astronomical and cardinal alignments. One is aligned due south and another is aligned with sunrise on the cross-quarter days like Cairn L in Carnbane West. 

Cairn T at Loughcrew is aligned to the rising sun at the equinoxes.

Cairn T at Loughcrew is aligned to the rising sun at the equinoxes. ( CC BY-SA 4.0 )

Cairn T is particularly decorated with engravings, many of which resemble flowers and combs. On either side of the entrance to the passage that leads to the burial chamber are engraved stones. A sill stone marks the division between the passage and the chamber. The chamber itself is cruciform with three wings to the south, west, and north. The entrance is to the east. Each of the three wings are sectioned off with sill stones. The western section of the tomb, has an engraved stone recessed into it. The stone is richly decorated with engravings. On the spring and autumnal equinoxes, a rectangular beam of sunlight illuminates the engraved stone recessed into western wall of the chamber. As the sun rises it moves off to the right. The symbols on the stone may be related to marking the exact time of the equinox though without written records we cannot be sure.

Register to become part of our active community, get updates, receive a monthly newsletter, and enjoy the benefits and rewards of our member point system OR just post your comment below as a Guest.

Top New Stories

: Ruins of the Haunted Eden Brown Estate Plantation Great House c. 1740 in 1993.
There is something very alluring and ideal about places named Eden. The Garden of Eden – one of the first known references to Eden – is depicted in the Bible as a place free from sin. It was allegedly a comforting place, a paradise for the first man and woman known as Adam and Eve. Along with the unlimited peace and pleasure of this place, came a paradox however; one in which its inhabitants could enjoy this lifestyle forever,

Ancient Places

: Ruins of the Haunted Eden Brown Estate Plantation Great House c. 1740 in 1993.
There is something very alluring and ideal about places named Eden. The Garden of Eden – one of the first known references to Eden – is depicted in the Bible as a place free from sin. It was allegedly a comforting place, a paradise for the first man and woman known as Adam and Eve. Along with the unlimited peace and pleasure of this place, came a paradox however; one in which its inhabitants could enjoy this lifestyle forever,

Opinion

Sculpture of a head from 950-1150 AD found at Building Y in the Tajin Chico section. On display at the Tajin site museum, Veracruz state, Mexico
El Tajin is a Mesoamerican archaeological site located in the North of the state of Veracruz, near the Gulf Coast of Mexico. The city, one of the most flourishing of the Classic and early Post-classic period, was only rediscovered in 1785, immediately capturing the imagination of European travelers with its imposing jungle-covered ruins and unusual architecture.

Our Mission

At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained.

The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe.

We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives.

By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. 

Ancient Image Galleries

View from the Castle Gate (Burgtor). (Public Domain)
Door surrounded by roots of Tetrameles nudiflora in the Khmer temple of Ta Phrom, Angkor temple complex, located today in Cambodia. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
Cable car in the Xihai (West Sea) Grand Canyon (CC BY-SA 4.0)
Next article