Erotic temple art at Khajuraho

Khajuraho: The Sexiest Temples in India

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The Khajuraho temple complex is a series of beautifully built and decorated buildings in Madhya Pradesh. Of the 85 temples originally built by the Chandela dynasty between 900 AD and 1130 AD, only 25 remain. Khajuraho has been designated as UNESCO World Heritage site and is highly worthy of tourist attentions. Yet what really sets Khajuraho apart from other temples is the numerous erotic carvings, both inside and outside the temple, that depict men, women, and even animals engaging in lovemaking, orgies, and bestiality under the benign smiles of divinities.

Temple Construction in the Golden Age for Central India

The Khajuraho temples were commissioned almost as soon as the Chandelas came to power in Madhya Pradesh, a region in Central India. They were dedicated to two Indian religions, Hinduism and Jainism, suggesting a culture of acceptance and respect for differing religious traditions. In a space of about 20 square kilometers (7.72 square miles), 85 temples were built by successive Chandela rulers. This was a golden age for Central India.

It came to an abrupt end at the start of the 13 th century when the Sultanate of Delhi invaded the Chandela Kingdom and seized the capital city Mahoba (located about 35 miles (56 kilometers) from Khajuraho). Up until the invasion, the Khajuraho temples were actively worshipped. However, upon the arrival of the Muslim Delhi Sultanate, the temples were desecrated or destroyed. The Islamic rulers had a “policy of intolerance for worship [sic] places of other religions so all the citizens of Khajuraho left the town with a hope that its solitude would not attract attention of the Muslim invaders into the temple area and in this way both temple and they themselves will remain unhurt” (Khajuraho-India, 2016).

Temples Emerge from the Jungle

It was only the relatively isolated temples that managed to survive the various Islamic dynasties that ruled the area from the 13 th to the 18 th century. Yet even these suffered as the forests and vegetation slowly overgrew the neglected buildings. It was not until 1838 that Khajuraho temples were made known to the world. British explore T.S. Burt had heard rumors of a sexually explicit temple deep in the Indian jungle but “had to be persuaded by his Indian attendants to make the journey; he didn’t believe anything of interest would be found at the remote spot” (Ramadurai, 2015).

Erotica at Khajuraho temples

Erotica at Khajuraho temples ( Nagarjun Kandukuru / flickr )

The Erotic Carvings of Khajuraho

In addition to architectural brilliance and masterful sculpting, the Khajuraho temples have become well known for their erotic carvings. Little is known for certain about the intent of the sexual imagery but it is widely believed that the temples were meant to celebrate all aspects of human life, including sex. Only about 10 percent of the temples’ artwork is sexual in nature, however, these attract the most attention. The temples depict the many different manifestations of Shakti and Shiva, the female and male divine principles. Yet, human figures are the ones engaged in the mithunas (a Sanskrit term used in Tantra to describe the ritual context of sexual unions). 

Erotica at Khajuraho temples

Erotica at Khajuraho temples ( Nagarjun Kandukuru / flickr )

Erotic carvings at Lakshmana Temple

Erotic carvings at Lakshmana Temple ( CC by SA 3.0 )

Some of the erotic carvings found on the temple complexes in Khajuraho

Some of the erotic carvings found on the temple complexes in Khajuraho ( Michael Baun / flickr )

Tantric Principles

Believed to be followers of Tantric principles, the Chandela rulers may have created the temples to help foster the balance between the male and female forces, as expressed through the mutual enjoyment of physical union. Indeed, the temples portray women so openly and so freely enjoying sexual pleasures that some scholars believe that the temples are meant as a celebration of the female power: “It is considered that these temples are a celebration of womanhood as they depict sculptures of heavily ornamented broad-hipped and busty but well-proportionate women ( apsaras) adorning the temple walls. The well contoured bodies of the nymphs grab attention and they can be seen engaging in activities like putting on make-up, washing their hair, playing games and knotting and unknotting their girdles” (Cunningham, 2016).

Sensual carvings at Khajuraho

Sensual carvings at Khajuraho ( chaostrophy / flickr )

Erotic carvings at Khajuraho

Erotic carvings at Khajuraho ( CC by SA 2.0 )

In contrast with many other cultures, particularly the Islamic one that took over the region shortly after the Khajuraho temples were built, the Hindu and Jain cultures did not frown upon women for enjoying sex. Sexual pleasure was considered an art form, the Kama Sutra, to be practiced and perfected by both genders. “Hinduism has traditionally considered sex an essential part of life, which could be why the carvings are casually interspersed between others that portray activities as varied as prayer and war. The fact that they are set in plain view and not tucked away in an obscure corner seems to suggest that their creators meant for them to be seen by all.” (Ramadurai, 2015) The difference is especially striking considering how conservative Indian society has grown over the last few centuries.

Comments

At one time temples all over India had fantastic sculpture. Bigoted muslims destroyed it all in name of religion. What we see at Khajuraho is a tiny fraction of the artistic tradition of India. In accordance with ancient treaties on architecture, eroticas were reserved for specific parts of the temples - namely where different 'sections' of the temple joined. Eg porch with the hall or ground floor with upper floor. This tradition can still be seen in temples across Nepal and other areas where islam reached relatively later. Rest of the temple's outer surface was profusely covered with other aspects of life, secular and spiritual.

The riot of activity on the outer wall of the temple is in stark contrast to the serene inner sanctum, where the only figure is that of the god. Similarly, the material world should remain as our life's facade and oneness with God should be our life's cherished ultimate goal. The abundant variety of life featured on the outer walls dissolves in to a single deity of the inner sanctum. In this there is a conscious attempt to lead us from the numerous outward activities to the focused inner spirit; from a fluid facade to a stable, inner aspect. Temples at Khajuraho are a celebration of man as the image of god and man's body as the house of God.

These temples were carved at a time when Tantra (combining sexualiity with spirituality) was widely popular. Tantra does not deny any aspect of life, because that would mean denial of God himself. It finds the divine spark in both beauty and ugliness, transcending both, desire and aversion, is its ultimate goal. Artist at Khajuraho found life to be mutilated and incomplete without sex.

Tantric cosmos is divided in to the male and female principle. Male principle has the form and potential, female has the energy. According to Hindu and Tantric philosophy, one can not achieve anything without the other. The male / female principle manifests itself in all aspects of the universe. Nothing can exist without their co-operation and coexistence. Hence, the whole universe is based on the union of male and female, why feel ashamed of it!

read rest of my article on - http://www.pushti-marg.net/bhagwat/khajuraho.htm

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