The Grand and Sacred Temple of Artemis, A Wonder of the Ancient World
The temple of Artemis is one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Three to four times as large as the Parthenon in Athens, it was once described as the largest temple and building of antiquity and served as a place of worship to the Greek Goddess Artemis. Home to both Greeks and Romans, the grand temple was destroyed and rebuilt many times over the course of its long history. The Antipater of Sidon, who compiled and visited all the seven wonders, said the temple was more marvelous than any of the other six wonders:
I have gazed on the walls of impregnable Babylon along which chariots may race, and on the Zeus by the banks of the Alpheus, I have seen the hanging gardens, and the Colossus of the Helios, the great man-made mountains of the lofty pyramids, and the gigantic tomb of Mausolus; but when I saw the sacred house of Artemis that towers to the clouds, the others were placed in the shade, for the sun himself has never looked upon its equal outside Olympus.
The Temple of Artemis is dedicated to the goddess Artemis, pictured above. Artist: Geza Maroti. ( Wikimedia Commons)
The Temple of Artemis (also known as the Temple of Diana by the Romans) was a Greek temple located in the ancient city of Ephesus. As well as a great port city, Ephesus, was once a religious center in the ancient world. Now called Selcuk, it was located about 35 miles (56 kilometers) south of modern-day Izmir, Turkey. The temple once served as a cultic place of worship for the Greek goddess Artemis, goddess of fertility, the earth, the moon, and the animals. Most of the descriptions of the original Temple of Artemis comes from the Roman historian Pliny the Elder (23 – 79 AD). He described the temple as a "wonderful monument of Grecian magnificence, and one that merits our genuine admiration." Pliny documented its exact proportions, how long the temples took to build and the material used during construction. The foundation of the temple was rectangular in form and measured 150 feet in width (45.7 meters) and 300 feet in length (91.4 meters). It was built on a podium with 13 steps leading up to the high terrace. There were 127 columns total, each 20m high (65.6 feet), with Ionic capitals and carved circular sides. Unlike other sanctuaries, the building was made entirely of marble.
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The ancient temple was built around 550 – 650 BC and on a site already sacred to the Anatolian Mother Goddess, Cybele. It was designed by the Cretan architect Chersiphron and his son Metagenes and financed by Croesus of Lydia. The Lydians (followed by the Persians) had conquered Ephesus in the mid-500s. However, the sacred site at Ephesus was believed to be far older than that.
According to the Greek historian Strabo, the Temple of Artemis was rebuilt seven times over ten centuries although the exact number is uncertain. Excavations have revealed evidence that it has been rebuilt at least three times. Each time the temple was rebuilt it was on the same site and larger than the previous. Pausanias (110 - 180 AD), a Greek traveler, geographer, and historian, claimed the shrine was ancient and older than the oracular shrine of Apollo at Didyma. He also said that the pre-Ionic inhabitants of the city were Leleges and Lydians. Historians believe the first sanctuary was built in the Bronze Age. When Callimachus wrote his Hymn to Artemis , he conjectured that the Amazons had built it. A disastrous flood, in the 7th century BC, destroyed the oldest of the several temples.
This model of the Temple of Artemis, at Miniatürk Park, Istanbul, Turkey, attempts to recreate the probable appearance of the first temple. ( Wikimedia Commons )
On July 21, 356 BC, the night Alexander the Great was born, legend says that an arsonist named Herostratus set fire to the temple and burned it down. Years later, Alexander the Great visited the town and offered to help pay the cost of rebuilding it if they would put his name on it, but the Ephesians refused. After Alexander the Great died, the temple was rebuilt in 323 BC true to original form except for a raised platform, which was a feature of classical architecture.
By 263 AD, the temple had been plundered by Nero and destroyed by the East Germanic Tribe, the Goths. After this, it was never rebuilt again.