Megalithic Atlit Yam

The 9,000-year-old underground megalithic settlement of Atlit Yam

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Not far off the coast of the village of Atlit in the Mediterranean Sea, near Haifa in Israel, lies the submerged ruins of the ancient Neolithic site of Atlit Yam.  The prehistoric settlement, which dates back to the 7 th millennium BC, has been so well preserved by the sandy seabed that a mysterious stone circle still stands as it was first erected, and dozens of human skeletons lay undisturbed in their graves.  Atlit Yam is one of the oldest and largest sunken settlements ever found and sheds new light on the daily lives of its ancient inhabitants.

Today, Atlit Yam lies between 8 – 12 metres beneath sea level and covered an area of 40,000 square metres.  The site was first discovered in 1984 by marine archaeologist Ehud Galili, and since then underwater excavations have unearthed numerous houses, stone-built water wells, a series of long unconnected walls, ritual installations, stone-paved areas, a megalithic structure, thousands of flora and faunal remains, dozens of human remains, and numerous artifacts made of stone, bone, wood and flint.

At the centre of the settlement, seven megaliths (1.0 to 2.1 metres high) weighing up to 600 kilograms are arranged in a stone semicircle.  The stones have cup marks carved into them and were once arranged around a freshwater spring, which suggests that they may have been used for a water ritual.  Another installation consists of three oval stones (1.6 - 1.8 metres), two of which are circumscribed by grooves forming schematic anthropomorphic figures.

Artist’s reconstruction of stone formation

Top: A diver examines megaliths at Atlit Yam. Bottom: Artist’s reconstruction of stone formation. Image source: Wikimedia

Another significant structural feature of the site is the stone-built well, which was excavated down to a depth of 5.5. metres.  At the base of the well, archaeologists found sediment fill containing animal bones, stone, flint, wood, and bone artifacts. This suggests that in its final stage, it ceased to function as a water-well and was used instead as a disposal pit. The change in function was probably related to salinization of the water due to a rise in sea-level. The wells from Atlit-Yam had probably been dug and constructed in the earliest stages of occupation (the end of the 9th millennium BC) and were essential for the maintenance of a permanent settlement in the area.

The ancient artifacts unearthed at Atlit Yam offer clues into how the prehistoric inhabitants once lived.  Researchers have found traces of more than 100 species of plants that grew at the site or were collected from the wild, and animal remains consisted of bones of both wild and domesticated animals, including sheep, goat, pig, dog, and cattle, suggesting that the residents raised and hunted animals for subsistence.  In addition, more than 6,000 fish bones were found. Combined with other clues, such as an ear condition found in some of the human remains caused by regular exposure to cold water, it seems that fishing also played a big role in their society. The archaeological material indicates that Atlit-Yam provides the earliest known evidence for an agro-pastoral-marine subsistence system on the Levantine coast. The inhabitants were some of the first to make the transition from being hunter-gatherers to being more settled farmers, and the settlement is one of the earliest with evidence of domesticated cattle.

Human remains reveal oldest known case of Tuberculosis

Ten flexed burials encased in clay and covered by thick layers of sand were discovered, both inside the houses and in the vicinity of Atlit Yam, and in total archaeologists have uncovered 65 sets of human remains. One of the most significant discoveries of this ancient site is the presence of tuberculosis (TB) within the village.  The skeletons of a woman and child, found in 2008, have revealed the earliest known cases of tuberculosis in the world.  The size of the infant's bones, and the extent of TB damage, suggest the mother passed the disease to her baby shortly after birth.

What caused Atlit Yam to sink?

One of the greatest archaeological mysteries of Atlit Yam is how it came to be submerged, a question that has led to heated debated in academic circles. An Italian study led by Maria Pareschi of the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Pisa indicates that a volcanic collapse of the Eastern flank of Mount Etna 8,500 years ago would likely have caused a 40 metre high tsunami to engulf some Mediterranean coastal cities within hours. Some scientists point to the apparent abandonment of Atlit Yam around the same time, and the thousands of fish remains, as further evidence that such a tsunami did indeed occur.

Comments

I'm surprised that explanations for the abandonment of Atlit Yam have been focused primarily on its current location many meters below the sea.  Since the standing stones appear not to have been disturbed, a truly catastrophic tsunami does not seem likely.  Even if the submerging process occurred gradually, the settlement may already have been abandoned.

The standing stones indicate that the occupants of Atlit Yam may have been superstitious, as other Neolithic peoples are believed to have been.  With this in mind, it is likely that the settlement was abandoned shortly after the deaths of the mother and child from TB.  The occupants may have believed that the site itself had become ill, or possessed by evil spirits.  If the people of Atlit Yam felt that the land itself was no longer welcoming, they would have left to find another place to settle.
 

- DK

The Bible is not the only account of a global flood. T.here are many, many ancient accounts of a global flood. The epic of Gilgamesh is only one story. There is not enough ice on the surface of the Earth to cover it. There is land beneath the ice...not pure ice. But is there enough water BENEATH the Earths crust? That is another question. History like this is purely speculation. You should join Sir Taylor in the back Brian.

No, Jacob Taylor, you are simply and egregiously incorrect. "People" don't like the theory of a global Biblical flood because there is no evidence to support a ridiculous global flood. The evidence you speak of supports the hypotheses of smaller localized flooding due to the end of the Last Glacial Maximum. But to earthlings of the time, these floods would have been monumentally momentous. To the back of the bus, Sir Taylor.

Or it could have been the flood of Noah. This is not a popular theory. People pretend the reasons for this are scientific, but that's simply not the case, as there is evidence for a global flood to be found all over the world.

The real reason people don't like the theory is because it gives credence to Christians.

The article implies that it's a mystery how it became submerged... but is it reasonable to assume that it may have been covered by sea level rise from subsequent deglaciation at the end of the last glacial maximum? Ocean levels rose by up to 400 feet in the span of a few thousand years... a process that is still gradually occurring today.

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