The Badlands Guardian and Other Uncanny Products of Pareidolia
Amidst the rugged terrain of the badlands of southeastern Alberta, Canada is a geologic feature that, from the air, bears a striking resemblance to an indigenous Canadian wearing a headdress. Observers have also noticed that a road leading to a natural gas well makes it appear as if the figure is wearing earphones connected to an iPod.
Although the feature looks very much like a carved head, it is in fact a natural feature created by erosion from wind and rain of the soft soil composed of sand, silt, and clay. It is an example of pareidolia, a phenomenon which causes humans to see meaningful patterns where none exist.
Creation of the Badlands Guardian
The feature was discovered by Lynn Hickox, an armchair explorer using Google Earth to search for interesting features. She was looking for directions to a paleontology museum when the feature “jumped out” at her as she puts it. She shared it with friends on the Google Earth forum. After the feature became widely known it was eventually dubbed the “Badlands Guardian.” Duane Froese, a professor of Geology at the University of Alberta, commented on the feature saying that Hickox was lucky to have found it.
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The ‘Badlands Guardian’ feature. ( Google Maps )
The Badlands Guardian feature is actually a drainage basin which was probably created during a period of rapid erosion. Southeastern Alberta is characterized by badlands terrain. Badlands terrain consists of thick layers of soft sedimentary rock and soils that have been eroded over time by wind and rain to create fantastic geologic landscapes and features.
These landscapes are formed as sediment is deposited in rivers, oceans, tropical environments, lakes, and deltas. After the climate becomes arid, periodic rains will cause flash floods and rapid erosion that carves out canyons, gullies, and drainage basins. Wind erosion also plays a role, creating structures such as hoodoos - spindly rock towers that rise over the landscape like giants.
Hoodoo near Wahweap Creek, Page, Arizona. (Wolfgang Staudt/ CC BY 2.0 )
Other examples of this landscape are found in areas of the western United States in the Dakotas, Utah, and Montana, among other places. In Canada, badlands are especially common in the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. These areas in the United States and Canada are famous for their fossils. Fossils tend to be best preserved in sediment-rich environments with high deposition rates, such as rivers and deltas, which form most of the rock and sediment making up badlands terrain. Numerous dinosaur fossils have been found in rocks from these regions.
Chasmosaurus belli ROM 843, Royal Tyrrell Museum of Paleontology. Late Cretaceous 75-74.5 million years ago. Found at Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta, and prepared at the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Paleontology, Drumheller, Alberta. ( CC BY SA 2.0 )
The Badlands Guardian is an example of a feature that can be formed simply by wind and rain. Though it is a basin feature, it looks like a range of hills at first glance from satellite images because of the hollow face illusion. This optical illusion is similar to the phenomenon that makes craters on the Moon and similar planetary bodies sometimes look topographically inverted in images, though the effect is reversed. The craters look like hills instead of the basins that they are in reality.
A hollow face illusion shown in snow. (Nevit Dilmen/ CC BY SA 3.0 )
The Badlands Guardian was probably formed over a couple of millennia by successive periods of rapid erosion of the rock and soil by water from brief heavy rainfall events. It is not certain if the exact age can be determined.
Although there are already suggestions that it is an artificial feature, one source even claims that it was built by extraterrestrials, there is currently no reason to believe that the Badlands Guardian was artificially constructed. The head is only apparent from certain images, and if observed in a different lighting or from a different vantage point, it just looks like an ordinary drainage basin.
Furthermore, if it were really a megalithic structure of some sort, there would likely be others found in the area as well - it would follow indigenous traditions related to the construction of such features. There would also be archaeological evidence of large nearby settlements, since large structures such as a giant hollow face usually require many people living in complex societies to make them. Currently there is no archaeological or ethnographic evidence that any indigenous culture in the area ever built such structures or that an advanced ancient civilization with the technology necessary for building this type of feature existed in that region. Based on these facts, it is more likely that it is just an unusual drainage basin that resembles a human head and shoulders because of pareidolia.